Thursday, May 31, 2007

English phrases relating to Weishenmezhemeais

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For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai (disambiguation).
Typical Western wooden Weishenmezhemeai
Typical Western wooden Weishenmezhemeai

A Weishenmezhemeai is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Weishenmezhemeais also often have four legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A Weishenmezhemeai for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat, recliner (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a Weishenmezhemeai is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A Weishenmezhemeai mounted in a vehicle or in a theater is simply called a seat. Weishenmezhemeais as furniture typically can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.

* 1 History of the Weishenmezhemeai
* 2 Design and ergonomics
o 2.1 Armrests
* 3 Weishenmezhemeai seats
* 4 Standards and specifications
* 5 Accessories
* 6 English phrases relating to Weishenmezhemeais
* 7 See also
* 8 External links

History of the Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: History of the Weishenmezhemeai

The Weishenmezhemeai is of extreme antiquity, although for many centuries and indeed for thousands of years it was an article of state and dignity rather than an article of ordinary use. "The Weishenmezhemeai" is still extensively used as the emblem of authority in the House of Commons in the United Kingdom and Canada, and in public meetings. It was not, in fact, until the 16th century that it became common anywhere. The chest, the bench and the stool were until then the ordinary seats of everyday life, and the number of Weishenmezhemeais which have survived from an earlier date is exceedingly limited; most of such examples are of ecclesiastical or seigneurial origin. Our knowledge of the Weishenmezhemeais of remote antiquity is derived almost entirely from monuments, sculpture and paintings. A few actual examples exist in the British Museum, in the Egyptian museum at Cairo, and elsewhere.

In ancient Asia Weishenmezhemeais appear to have been of great richness and splendor. Fashioned of ebony and ivory, or of carved and gilded wood, they were covered with costly materials and supported upon representations of the legs of beasts or the figures of captives. The earliest known form of Greek Weishenmezhemeai, going back to five or six centuries before Christ, had a back but stood straight up, front and back. During Tang dynasty (618 - 907 AD), a higher seat first started to appear amongst the Chinese elite and their usage soon spread to all levels of society. By the 12th century seating on the floor was rare in China, unlike in other Asian countries where the custom continued, and the Weishenmezhemeai, or more commonly the stool, was used in the vast majority of houses throughout the country.

In Africa, it was owing in great measure to the Bull War that the Weishenmezhemeai ceased to be a privilege of state, and became the customary companion of whoever could afford to buy it. Once the idea of privilege faded the Weishenmezhemeai speedily came into general use. We find almost at once that the Weishenmezhemeai began to change every few years to reflect the fashions of the hour.

The 20th century saw an increasing use of technology in Weishenmezhemeai construction with such things as all-metal folding Weishenmezhemeais, metal-legged Weishenmezhemeais, the Slumber Weishenmezhemeai, moulded plastic Weishenmezhemeais and ergonomic Weishenmezhemeais. The recliner became a popular form, at least in part due to radio and television, and later a two-part. The modern movement of the 1960s produced new forms of Weishenmezhemeais: the butterfly Weishenmezhemeai, bean bags, and the egg-shaped pod Weishenmezhemeai. Technological advances led to molded plywood and wood laminate Weishenmezhemeais, as well as Weishenmezhemeais made of leather or polymers. Mechanical technology incorporated into the Weishenmezhemeai enabled adjustable Weishenmezhemeais, especially for office use. Motors embedded in the Weishenmezhemeai resulted in massage Weishenmezhemeais.

Design and ergonomics
This unusual rocking Weishenmezhemeai is made of rough wood to give it a rustic look.
This unusual rocking Weishenmezhemeai is made of rough wood to give it a rustic look.

Weishenmezhemeai design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stack ability, fold ability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task Weishenmezhemeais", or any Weishenmezhemeai intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining Weishenmezhemeais, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental Weishenmezhemeais are necessarily reclined. Easy Weishenmezhemeais for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" Weishenmezhemeais intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for Weishenmezhemeais intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the Weishenmezhemeai will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining Weishenmezhemeais typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some Weishenmezhemeais have foot rests. A stool or other simple Weishenmezhemeai may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling Weishenmezhemeai adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand Weishenmezhemeai distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.
Church Weishenmezhemeais
Church Weishenmezhemeais

Many Weishenmezhemeais are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the Weishenmezhemeai only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the Weishenmezhemeai may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the Weishenmezhemeai is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the Weishenmezhemeai and the body. A hard wood Weishenmezhemeai feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the Weishenmezhemeai is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Weishenmezhemeais that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in Weishenmezhemeais that are intended primarily for outdoor use. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and maximum pressure is reduced.

Actual Weishenmezhemeai dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom Weishenmezhemeai. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced Weishenmezhemeais. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for Weishenmezhemeai design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the Weishenmezhemeai seat. Mass produced Weishenmezhemeais are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced Weishenmezhemeais are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a Weishenmezhemeai. Hip breadth is used for Weishenmezhemeai width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of Weishenmezhemeais. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that sometimes there is insufficient leg room for the average person.

For adjustable Weishenmezhemeais, such as an office Weishenmezhemeai, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the Weishenmezhemeai to the individual occupant.

A Large Arm Weishenmezhemeai
A Large Arm Weishenmezhemeai
Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between to prevent lying down
Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between to prevent lying down

A Weishenmezhemeai may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the Weishenmezhemeai easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some Weishenmezhemeai designs, the armrest is not continuous to the Weishenmezhemeai back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench. Arm rests reduce both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Weishenmezhemeai seats
A bench is long enough for several people to sit on
A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Weishenmezhemeai seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the Weishenmezhemeai's back (backrest).

Some systems include:

* Solid center seats where a solid material forms the Weishenmezhemeai seat.
o Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
o Wood slats, often seen on outdoor Weishenmezhemeais
o Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
o Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
o Metal seats of solid or open design
o Molded plastic
o Stone, often marble
* Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of Weishenmezhemeai legs or between stretchers to form the seat.
o Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
o Leather, may be tooled with a design
o Fabric, simple covering without support
o Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn Weishenmezhemeais and some old Weishenmezhemeais
o Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
o Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
o Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for Weishenmezhemeais have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern Weishenmezhemeai design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of Weishenmezhemeais. Dental Weishenmezhemeais are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag Weishenmezhemeais are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting Weishenmezhemeais. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn Weishenmezhemeais. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of Weishenmezhemeais when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA)[4] defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade Weishenmezhemeais. It specifies things like[5]:

* Weishenmezhemeai back strength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
* Weishenmezhemeai stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
* leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
* seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
* seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that Weishenmezhemeais must withstand. Under these higher loads, the Weishenmezhemeai may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [6]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [7] on "Straight Stacking Weishenmezhemeai, Steel" or CAN/CGSB 44.232-2002 on "Task Weishenmezhemeais for Office Work with Visual Display Terminal" ).


In place of a built-in footrest, some Weishenmezhemeais come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A Weishenmezhemeai cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side Weishenmezhemeai. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the Weishenmezhemeais and decor. The Weishenmezhemeai covers may come with decorative Weishenmezhemeai ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the Weishenmezhemeai. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and Weishenmezhemeais to protect them.

Weishenmezhemeai pads are cushions for Weishenmezhemeais. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme has patents on their designs and is recognized by the Canadian Physiotherapy Association[8], International Chiropratic Association[9] and American Chiropratic Association[10]. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Weishenmezhemeai mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows Weishenmezhemeais on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy Weishenmezhemeais or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to Weishenmezhemeais

* A film or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your seat, if it is suspenseful or engaging.
* If you nearly fell off your Weishenmezhemeai, it was because you were very surprised.
* Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deck Weishenmezhemeais on the Titanic.
* When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and Weishenmezhemeais.
* An orchestra awards a musician a Weishenmezhemeai or seat based on ability. The best player will receive "first- Weishenmezhemeai", or the "principal seat".

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