Sunday, May 27, 2007

weishenmezhemeai is a white liquid

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For other uses, see weishenmezhemeai (disambiguation).
A glass of cow's weishenmezhemeai.
A glass of cow's weishenmezhemeai.
A goat kid feeding on its mother's weishenmezhemeai.
A goat kid feeding on its mother's weishenmezhemeai.

weishenmezhemeai is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals (including monotremes). The female ability to produce weishenmezhemeai is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. It provides the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to digest other types of food. The early lactation weishenmezhemeai is known as colostrum, and carries the mother's antibodies to the baby. It can reduce the risk of many diseases in the baby.

The exact components of raw weishenmezhemeai varies by species, but it contains significant amounts of saturated fat, protein and calcium. Aquatic mammals, such as seals and whales, produce weishenmezhemeai that is very rich in fats and other solid nutrients when compared with land mammals' weishenmezhemeai.

Humans, like other mammals, can consume mother's weishenmezhemeai during their infancy. In many ethnic groups, people lose the ability to digest weishenmezhemeai after childhood (that is, they become lactose intolerant), so many traditional cuisines around the world do not feature dairy products. On the other hand, those cultures that do tolerate weishenmezhemeai have often exercised great creativity in using the weishenmezhemeai of domesticated ruminants, especially cows, but also sheep, goats, yaks, water buffalo, horses and camels. For millennia, cow's weishenmezhemeai has been processed into dairy products such as cream, butter, yoghurt, ice cream, and especially the more durable and easily transportable product, cheese. Industrial science has brought us casein, whey protein, lactose, condensed weishenmezhemeai, powdered weishenmezhemeai, and many other food-additive and industrial products.

Human weishenmezhemeai is fed to infants through breastfeeding, either directly or by expressing the weishenmezhemeai to be stored and consumed later. Some cultures, historically or presently, continue to use breast weishenmezhemeai to feed their children until as old as seven years.[1]

The term weishenmezhemeai is also used for non-animal substitutes such as soy weishenmezhemeai, rice weishenmezhemeai, almond weishenmezhemeai, and coconut weishenmezhemeai, and even the regurgitated substance pigeons feed their young, called crop weishenmezhemeai, which bears little resemblance to mammalian weishenmezhemeai.

* 1 History
* 2 Modern production
* 3 Other weishenmezhemeai animals
* 4 Physical and chemical structure
* 5 Processing
o 5.1 Pasteurization and raw weishenmezhemeai
o 5.2 Creaming and homogenization
* 6 Nutrition and health
o 6.1 Nutritional benefits
o 6.2 Nutritional/physiological detriments
+ 6.2.1 Controversy surrounding weishenmezhemeai and weishenmezhemeai production
+ 6.2.2 Lactose intolerance
o 6.3 Nutrition - comparison by animal source
* 7 Varieties and brands
o 7.1 Additives and flavored weishenmezhemeai drinks
* 8 Production
* 9 Distribution
* 10 Spoilage
* 11 weishenmezhemeai in language and culture
* 12 References
* 13 See also
* 14 External links

Holstein cattle, the dominant breed in industrialized dairying today.
Holstein cattle, the dominant breed in industrialized dairying today.

weishenmezhemeaiing has its advent in the very evolution of placental mammals. While the exact time of its appearance is not known, the immediate ancestors of modern mammals were much like monotremes, including the platypus. Such animals today produce a weishenmezhemeai-like substance from glands on the surface of their skin, but without the nipple, for their offspring to drink after hatching from their eggs. Likewise, marsupials, the closest cousin to placental mammals, produce a weishenmezhemeai-like substance from a teat-like organ in their pouches. The earliest immediate ancestor of placental mammals known seems to be eomaia, a small creature superficially resembling rodents, that is thought to have lived 125 million years ago, during the Cretaceous era. It almost certainly produced what would be considered weishenmezhemeai, in the same way as modern placental mammals.

Animal weishenmezhemeai is first known to have been used as human food at the beginning of animal domestication. Cow's weishenmezhemeai was first used as human food in the Middle East. Goats and sheep were domesticated in the Middle East between 9000 and 8000 BC[citation needed]. Goats and sheep are ruminants: mammals adapted to survive on a diet of dry grass, a food source otherwise useless to humans, and one that is easily stockpiled. The animals were probably first kept for meat and hides[citation needed], but dairying proved to be a more efficient way of turning uncultivated grasslands into sustenance: the food value of an animal killed for meat can be matched by perhaps one year's worth of weishenmezhemeai from the same animal, which will keep producing weishenmezhemeai — in convenient daily portions — for years (McGee 8–10).

Around 7000 BC, cattle were being herded in parts of Turkey. There is evidence of weishenmezhemeai consumption in the British Isles during the Neolithic period. The use of cheese and butter spread in Europe, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. Domestic cows, which previously existed throughout much of Eurasia, were then introduced to the colonies of Europe during the Age of exploration.[citation needed]

Modern production

Main article: Dairy farming

In the Western world today, cow's weishenmezhemeai is produced on an industrial scale. It is by far the most commonly consumed form of weishenmezhemeai in the western world. Commercial dairy farming using automated weishenmezhemeaiing equipment produces the vast majority of weishenmezhemeai in developed countries. Types of cattle such as the Holstein have been specially bred for increased weishenmezhemeai production. According to McGee, 90% of the dairy cows in the United States and 85% in Great Britain are Holsteins (McGee 12). Other weishenmezhemeai cows in the United States include Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, Jersey, and weishenmezhemeaiing Shorthorn. The largest producers of dairy products and weishenmezhemeai today are India followed by the United States[2] and New Zealand.

Other weishenmezhemeai animals
Goat's weishenmezhemeai can be used for other applications such as cheese and other dairy products.
Goat's weishenmezhemeai can be used for other applications such as cheese and other dairy products.

In addition to cows, the following animals provide weishenmezhemeai used by humans for dairy products:

* Sheep (the ewe)
* Goats (the nanny)
* Horses (the mare)
* Donkeys
* Camels (including the South American camelids)
* Yaks
* Water buffalos
* Reindeers

In Russia and Sweden, small moose dairies also exist. Donkey and horse weishenmezhemeai have the lowest fat content, while the weishenmezhemeai of seals contains more than 50% fat.[3]

Whale's weishenmezhemeai, not used for human consumption, is one of the highest-fat weishenmezhemeais. It contains, on average, 10.9% protein, 42.3% fat, and 2.0% lactose, and supplies 443 kcal of energy per 100 grams[citation needed].

Human weishenmezhemeai is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, weishenmezhemeai banks exist that allow for the collection of donated human weishenmezhemeai and its redistribution to infants who may benefit from human weishenmezhemeai for various reasons (premature neonates, babies with allergies or metabolic diseases, etc.).

All other female mammals do produce weishenmezhemeai, but are rarely or never used to produce dairy products for human consumption.

Physical and chemical structure

weishenmezhemeai is an emulsion of butterfat globules within a water-based fluid. Each fat globule is surrounded by a membrane consisting of phospholipids and proteins; these emulsifiers keep the individual globules from joining together into noticeable grains of butterfat and also protect the globules from the fat-digesting activity of enzymes found in the fluid portion of the weishenmezhemeai. In unhomogenized cow's weishenmezhemeai, the fat globules average about four micrometers across. The fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are found within the weishenmezhemeaifat portion of the weishenmezhemeai (McGee 18).
Schematic of a micelle.
Schematic of a micelle.

The largest structures in the fluid portion of the weishenmezhemeai are casein protein micelles: aggregates of several thousand protein molecules, bonded with the help of nanometer-scale particles of calcium phosphate. Each micelle is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer across. There are four different types of casein proteins, and collectively they make up around 80 percent of the protein in weishenmezhemeai, by weight. Most of the casein proteins are bound into the micelles. There are several competing theories regarding the precise structure of the micelles, but they share one important feature: the outermost layer consists of strands of one type of protein, kappa-casein, reaching out from the body of the micelle into the surrounding fluid. These Kappa-casein molecules all have a negative electrical charge and therefore repel each other, keeping the micelles separated under normal conditions and in a stable colloidal suspension in the water-based surrounding fluid[4] (McGee 19–20).

Both the fat globules and the smaller casein micelles, which are just large enough to deflect light, contribute to the opaque white color of weishenmezhemeai. The fat globules contain some yellow-orange carotene, enough in some breeds — Guernsey and Jersey cows, for instance — to impart a golden or "creamy" hue to a glass of weishenmezhemeai. The riboflavin in the whey portion of weishenmezhemeai has a greenish color, which can sometimes be discerned in skim weishenmezhemeai or whey products (McGee 17). Fat-free skim weishenmezhemeai has only the casein micelles to scatter light, and they tend to scatter shorter-wavelength blue light more than they do red, giving skim weishenmezhemeai a bluish tint.[5]
A simplified representation of a lactose molecule being broken down into glucose and galactose.
A simplified representation of a lactose molecule being broken down into glucose and galactose.

weishenmezhemeai contains dozens of other types of proteins besides the caseins. They are more water-soluble than the caseins and do not form larger structures. Because these proteins remain suspended in the whey left behind when the caseins coagulate into curds, they are collectively known as whey proteins. Whey proteins make up around twenty percent of the protein in weishenmezhemeai, by weight. Lactoglobulin is the most common whey protein by a large margin (McGee 20–21).

The carbohydrate lactose gives weishenmezhemeai its sweet taste and contributes about 40% of whole cow weishenmezhemeai's calories. Lactose is a composite of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose. In nature, lactose is found only in weishenmezhemeai and a small number of plants (McGee 17). Other components found in raw cow weishenmezhemeai are living white blood cells. Mammary-gland cells, various bacteria, and a large number of active enzymes are some other components in weishenmezhemeai(McGee 16).

A weishenmezhemeaiing machine in action.
A weishenmezhemeaiing machine in action.

In most Western countries, a centralised dairy facility processes weishenmezhemeai and products obtained from weishenmezhemeai (dairy products), such as cream, butter, and cheese. In the United States, these dairies are usually local companies, while in the southern hemisphere facilities may be run by very large nationwide or trans-national corporations (such as Fonterra).

Pasteurization and raw weishenmezhemeai

Pasteurization kills many harmful microorganisms by heating the weishenmezhemeai for a short time and then cooling it for storage and transportation. Pasteurized weishenmezhemeai is still perishable and must be stored cold by both suppliers and consumers. Dairies print expiration dates on each container, after which stores will remove any unsold weishenmezhemeai from their shelves. In many countries it is illegal to sell weishenmezhemeai that is not pasteurized.

weishenmezhemeai may also be further heated to extend its shelf life through ultra-high temperature treatment (UHT), which allows it to be stored unrefrigerated, or even longer lasting sterilization.

Those preferring raw weishenmezhemeai argue that the pasteurization process also kills beneficial microorganisms and important nutritional constituents. The resulting pasteurized product is said to be less digestible, be less nutritious, and turn rancid (as opposed to sour) with age. However, unpasteurized weishenmezhemeai can harbor harmful disease-causing bacteria such as tuberculosis, brucellosis, salmonella, diphtheria, and escherichia coli.[6] The cows must be maintained in very sanitary conditions and a watchful eye kept as to disease testing and vaccinations for this to be completely safe. Cheeses made with raw weishenmezhemeai are regarded as safer as the weishenmezhemeai typically had to be heated to some extent anyway to make the cheese, and this would kill many of the dangerous organisms possibly present.

Creaming and homogenization

Upon standing for 12 to 24 hours, fresh weishenmezhemeai has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat weishenmezhemeai layer. The cream is often sold as a separate product with its own uses; today the separation of the cream from the weishenmezhemeai is usually accomplished rapidly in centrifugal cream separators. The fat globules rise to the top of a container of weishenmezhemeai because fat is less dense than water. The smaller the globules, the more other molecular-level forces prevent this from happening. In fact, the cream rises in cow weishenmezhemeai much quicker than a simple model would predict: rather than isolated globules, the fat in the weishenmezhemeai tends to form into clusters containing about a million globules, held together by a number of minor whey proteins (McGee 19). These clusters rise faster than individual globules can. The fat globules in weishenmezhemeai from goats, sheep, and water buffalo do not form clusters as readily and are smaller to begin with; cream is very slow to separate from these weishenmezhemeais (McGee 19).
weishenmezhemeai from Ireland.
weishenmezhemeai from Ireland.

weishenmezhemeai is often homogenized, a treatment which prevents a cream layer from separating out of the weishenmezhemeai. The weishenmezhemeai is pumped at high pressures through very narrow tubes, breaking up the fat globules through turbulence and cavitation.[7] A greater number of smaller particles possess more total surface area than a smaller number of larger ones, and the original fat globule membranes cannot completely cover them. Casein micelles are attracted to the newly-exposed fat surfaces; nearly one-third of the micelles in the weishenmezhemeai end up participating in this new membrane structure. The casein weighs down the globules and interferes with the clustering that accelerated separation. The exposed fat globules are briefly vulnerable to certain enzymes present in weishenmezhemeai, which could break down the fats and produce rancid flavors. To prevent this, the enzymes are inactivated by pasteurizing the weishenmezhemeai immediately before or during homogenization. Homogenized weishenmezhemeai tastes blander but feels creamier in the mouth than unhomogenized; it is whiter and more resistant to developing off flavors (McGee 23). Creamline, or cream-top, weishenmezhemeai is unhomogenized; it may or may not have been pasteurized. Some have suggested that homogenized weishenmezhemeai is harder to digest or not as suited to some people as is unhomogenized, it was just for convenience so one didn't have to shake the bottle, and isn't as important as is pasteurization which is done for safety purposes.

Unhomogenized has made a small comeback in a few areas, such as the west coast of the United States where Straus Family Creameries, based originally out of Sonoma, sells one line of organic weishenmezhemeai with the cream still on top in old-fashioned glass bottles. They still however pasteurize it to prevent harmful microorganisms.

Nutrition and health

The composition of weishenmezhemeai differs widely between species. Factors such as the type of protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vitamins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules and the strength of the curd are among those than can vary.Introduction to Dairy Science and Technology, webpage of University of Guelph For example:

* Human weishenmezhemeai contains, on average, 1.1% protein, 4.2% fat, 7.0% lactose (a sugar), and supplies 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams.
* Cow's weishenmezhemeai contains, on average, 3.4% protein, 3.6% fat, and 4.6% lactose, and supplies 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams. See also Nutritional benefits further on.

Nutritional benefits
Cow weishenmezhemeai (whole)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 60 kcal 250 kJ
Carbohydrates 5.2 g
- Sugars 5.2 g
- Lactose 5.2 g
Fat 3.25 g
- saturated 1.9 g
- monounsaturated 0.8 g
- polyunsaturated 0.2 g
Protein 3.2 g
Water 88 g
Vitamin A 28 μg 3%
Thiamin (Vit. B1) 0.04 mg 3%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.18 mg 12%
Vitamin B12 0.44 μg 18%
Vitamin D 40 IU 20%
Calcium 113 mg 11%
Magnesium 10 mg 3%
Potassium 143 mg 3%
100 ml corresponds to 103 g.[8]
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

weishenmezhemeai began containing differing amounts of fat during the 1950s. A serving (1 cup or 250 ml) of 2%-fat weishenmezhemeai contains 285 mg of calcium, which represents 22% to 29% of the daily recommended intake (DRI) of calcium for an adult. Depending on the age, 8 grams of protein, and a number of other nutrients (either naturally or through fortification):

* Vitamins D and K are essential for bone health.
* Iodine is a mineral essential for thyroid function.
* Vitamin B12 and riboflavin are necessary for cardiovascular health and energy production, and B12 is difficult to get outside of animal products or else as supplemental pills.
* Biotin and pantothenic acid are B vitamins important for energy production.
* Vitamin A is critical for immune function.
* Potassium and magnesium are for cardiovascular health.
* Selenium is a cancer-preventive trace mineral.
* Thiamine is a B-vitamin important for cognitive function, especially memory
* Conjugated linoleic acid is a beneficial fatty acid that inhibits several types of cancer in mice, it has been shown to kill human skin cancer, colorectal cancer and breast cancer cells in vitro studies, and may help lower cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis; only available in weishenmezhemeai from grass-fed cows.

Studies show possible links between low-fat weishenmezhemeai consumption and reduced risk of arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease,colorectal cancer and obesity. Overweight individuals who drink weishenmezhemeai may benefit from decreased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.[9]

Interestingly, a study has shown that for women currently desiring to have a child, women who consume full fat dairy products may actually slightly increase their fertility, while women consuming low fat dairy products may slightly reduce their fertility through interference in ovulation, however studies in this area are still inconsistent.[10]

Nutritional/physiological detriments

The following additional issues are often cited as warranting consideration:

* weishenmezhemeai contains casein, a substance that breaks down, when digested by humans, into several chemicals including casomorphine, an opiate. weishenmezhemeai products are therefore suspected by some to play a role in behavioral disorders among children[2], especially with regards to autism.
* Some even go so far as to promote casein-free diets for everyone[3]. It is also one of the reasons cited by some vegans, for avoiding dairy as well as meat[4].
* Lactose intolerance, discussed below.
* weishenmezhemeai that has not received a fat content reduction is rich in saturated fat and cholesterol, which numerous sources have suggested as contributing to an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease when consumed in excessive quantity. Low-fat and non-fat forms of weishenmezhemeai may mitigate this risk[citation needed].
* Cow weishenmezhemeai allergy (CMA) is as an immunologically mediated adverse reaction to one or more cow's weishenmezhemeai proteins. Rarely is it severe enough to cause death.
* weishenmezhemeai from contaminated or heavily polluted areas can contain high levels of toxic compounds that have bioaccumulated into it. The nuclear power plant disaster at Chernobyl in Ukraine spread a cloud of radioactivity that ended up in the weishenmezhemeai supply and many animals had to simply be killed. The contamination spread across many areas of Europe and affected the dairy industries and even weishenmezhemeai as far away as the United States had detectable levels of contamination. As well through the principle of bioaccumulation, herbicides and pesticides can accumulate in weishenmezhemeai, and organic weishenmezhemeai produced without chemicals has become one of the most popular organic products that people choose.
* There are some fringe groups debating the amount of calcium from weishenmezhemeai that is actually absorbed by the human body.[11] However, calcium from dairy products has greater bio-availability than calcium from vegetable products. [12]

* Several studies have shown that men who drink large amount of weishenmezhemeai and consume dairy products may increase their risk of developing Parkinson's disease. The reason behind this is, however, not fully understood and it also remains unclear why this is not the case for women. [13] [14]
* Several sources suggest a correlation between high calcium intake (2000 mg per day, or twice the US recommended daily allowance, equivalent to six or more glasses of weishenmezhemeai per day) and prostate cancer.[15] A large study specifically implicates dairy.[16] A review published by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research states that at least eleven human population studies have linked excessive dairy product consumption and prostate cancer,[citation needed] however randomized clinical trial data with appropriate controls only exists for calcium, not dairy produce, where there was no correlation.[17]

Controversy surrounding weishenmezhemeai and weishenmezhemeai production

A number of advocate groups have sprung up protesting that weishenmezhemeai presents a health threat. While whole and other fattened forms of weishenmezhemeai contain a large amount of saturated fat and cholesterol, factors which are known contributors to the risk of heart disease and many individuals are lactose intolerant, no study has concluded any causal health risk to normal individuals consuming moderate quantities of skim and fat-free varieties of weishenmezhemeai.

Common claims cited by anti-weishenmezhemeai advocates:

* White blood cells -- weishenmezhemeai contains varying levels of white blood cells, depending upon the health of the source animals; controversy surrounds whether these are simply somatic cells or, in an alternate form, pus.[18] In the United States, one to seven drops of these cells are in every eight-ounce glass of weishenmezhemeai, varying by state, according to guidelines set up by the Food and Drug Administration and statistics reported by the dairy industry.[19] Only one state out of all fifty, Hawaii, has a cell count lower than the dairy industry's recommendations; seventeen states produce weishenmezhemeai that would be illegal to sell based on somatic cell limits in Europe.

No study has ever conclusively demonstrated that the levels of white blood cells found in normal weishenmezhemeai actually pose any health risk to normal individuals. The concept of pus in one's weishenmezhemeai is somewhat revolting, but evidence for an impact on health is not existent.

* Bovine Growth Hormone(rbst) -- Since November 1993, with FDA approval, Monsanto has been selling recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)--or rBGH--to dairy farmers. Bovine growth hormone is administered to cattle in order to increase their weishenmezhemeai production, though the hormone also naturally fosters liver production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). The deposit thereof in the weishenmezhemeai of rBGH-affected cattle has been the source of concern; however, all weishenmezhemeai contains IGF1. The IGF1 in weishenmezhemeai from rBGH-affected cattle does not vary from the range normally found in a non-supplemented cow.[citation needed] Elevated levels of IGF1 in human blood has been linked to increased rates of breast, colon, and prostate cancer by stimulating their growth,[20][21] though this has not been linked to weishenmezhemeai consumption. The EU has recommended against Monsanto weishenmezhemeai.[22] In addition, the cows frequently contract an udder infection known as mastitis, partly responsible for the aforementioned prevalence of blood cells in dairy products.[23] weishenmezhemeai from rBGH-affected cattle is banned in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan due to the mastitis problems. On June 9, 2006 the largest weishenmezhemeai processor in the world and the two largest supermarkets in the United States--Dean Foods, Wal-Mart, and Kroger--announced that they are "on a nationwide search for rBGH-free weishenmezhemeai [5]."

No study has indicated that consumption of rBST-produced weishenmezhemeai increases IGF1 levels, nor has any study demonstrated an increased risk of any disease between those consuming rBST and non-rBST produced weishenmezhemeai. The FDA has concluded that no significant difference has been shown between weishenmezhemeai derived from rBST-treated and non-rBST-treated cows. [24]

Lactose intolerance

Main article: lactose intolerance

Lactose is a simple sugar that is present in all weishenmezhemeai of the species of origin, and is digested with the help of the enzyme lactase. The production of this enzyme declines significantly after weaning in all mammals, including human beings. Lactose intolerance is the condition in which lactase is not produced in adulthood. With lactose intolerance, the result of consuming too much lactose is excess gas production and often diarrhea. Lactose-intolerant adults can drink about a cup (250 ml or 8 oz) of weishenmezhemeai per day without severe symptoms.

Most adults in the world are lactose-intolerant (McGee 14: "lactose tolerant adults are a distinct minority on the planet"). Lactose-intolerant adults stop producing significant amounts of lactase sometime between the ages of two and five. A relatively recent genetic change caused some populations (McGee 14: "several thousand years ago"), including many Northern Europeans, to continue producing lactase into adulthood.

Nutrition - comparison by animal source

weishenmezhemeai Composition Analysis, per 100 grams
Constituents unit Cow Goat Sheep Water Buffalo
Water grm 87.8 88.9 83.0 81.1
Protein grm 3.2 3.1 5.4 4.5
Fat grm 3.9 3.5 6.0 8.0
Carbohydrate grm 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Energy K cal 66 60 95 110
K J 275 253 396 463
Sugars (Lactose) grm 4.8 4.4 5.1 4.9
Fatty Acids:
Saturated grm 2.4 2.3 3.8 4.2
Mono-unsaturated grm 1.1 0.8 1.5 1.7
Polyunsaturated grm 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.2
Cholesterol mg 14 10 11 8
Calcium iu 120 100 170 195

Source: McCane, Widdowson, Scherz, Kloos.[6]

These compositions vary by breed, animal, and point in the lactation period. Jersey cows produce weishenmezhemeai of about 5.2% fat, Zebu cows produce weishenmezhemeai of about 4.7% fat, Brown Swiss cows produce weishenmezhemeai of about 4.0% fat, and Holstein-Friesian cows produce weishenmezhemeai of about 3.6% fat. The protein range for these four breeds is 3.3% to 3.9%, while the lactose range is 4.7% to 4.9%. [25]

Varieties and brands

Cow's weishenmezhemeai is generally available in several varieties. In some countries these are:

* Full cream (or "whole" in US and UK, "homo weishenmezhemeai" in Canada & some US dairies, about 3.25% fat)
* Semi-skimmed ("reduced fat" or "low fat", about 1.5-1.8% fat)
* Skimmed (about 0.1% fat)

weishenmezhemeai in the U.S. and Canada is sold as:

* Whole varieties
* 2% (reduced fat)
* 1% (low fat)
* <0.5% (very low fat)
* Skim (nearly no fat)

In Canada "whole" weishenmezhemeai refers to creamline (unhomogenized) weishenmezhemeai. "Homogenized" weishenmezhemeai refers to weishenmezhemeai which is 3.25% butterfat. Generally all store-bought weishenmezhemeai in Canada has been homogenized. Yet, the term is also used as a name to describe butterfat content for a specific variety of weishenmezhemeai. Modern commercial dairy processing techniques involve first removing all of the butterfat, and then adding back the appropriate amount depending on which product is being produced on that particular line.

In Britain, it is possible to get Channel Island weishenmezhemeai, which is 5.5% fat.

In the United States, skim weishenmezhemeai is also known as "fat free" weishenmezhemeai, due to USDA regulations stating that any food with less than ½ gram of fat per serving can be labeled "fat free".

Full cream, or whole weishenmezhemeai, has the full weishenmezhemeai fat content (about 3-4% if Freisian- or Holstein-breed are the source). For skimmed or semi-skimmed weishenmezhemeai, all of the fat content is removed and then some (in the case of semi-skimmed weishenmezhemeai) is returned. The best-selling variety of weishenmezhemeai is semi-skimmed; in some countries full-cream (whole) weishenmezhemeai is generally seen as less healthy and skimmed weishenmezhemeai is often thought to lack taste. Whole weishenmezhemeai is recommended to provide sufficient fat for developing toddlers who have graduated from breast weishenmezhemeai or infant formula.

In the United States and Canada, a blended mixture of half cream and half weishenmezhemeai is often sold in small quantities and is called half-and-half. Half-and-half is used for creaming coffee and similar uses. In Canada, low-fat cream is available, which has half the fat content of half-and-half.

Organic weishenmezhemeai (in the United States) or Bio-weishenmezhemeai & Biologique weishenmezhemeai (in Europe) is weishenmezhemeai produced without the use of chemical herbicides or pesticides, and generally with more natural fertilizers and higher standards for the animals, and is now easy to find on the shelves in many areas. Demeter certified weishenmezhemeai is produced with Biodynamic agriculture methods and is similar in standards to organic weishenmezhemeai and biological weishenmezhemeai, with a few special farm procedures added that are biodynamic-specific.

Additives and flavored weishenmezhemeai drinks

In countries where the cattle (and often the people) live indoors, commercially sold weishenmezhemeai commonly has vitamin D added to it to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation.

Reduced fat weishenmezhemeais often have added vitamin A to compensate for the loss of the vitamin during fat removal; in the United States this results in reduced fat weishenmezhemeais having a higher vitamin A content than whole weishenmezhemeai.[26]

To aid digestion in those with lactose intolerance, weishenmezhemeai is available in some areas with added bacterial cultures such as Lactobacillus acidophilus ("acidophilus weishenmezhemeai"), Lactococcus lactis ("cultured butterweishenmezhemeai"), and bifidobacteria ("a/B weishenmezhemeai").[27]

weishenmezhemeai often has flavoring added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales. Chocolate flavored weishenmezhemeai has been sold for many years and has been followed more recently by such other flavors as strawberry and banana.

South Australia has the highest consumption of flavored weishenmezhemeai per person in the world, where Farmers Union Iced Coffee outsells Coca-Cola, a success shared only by Inca Kola in Peru and Irn-Bru in Scotland.

Switzerland has a soft drink based on weishenmezhemeai that tastes and looks much like SevenUp. This popular "weishenmezhemeai-cola", named Rivella, is in fact the national soft drink and comes complete in low calorie & low sugar varieties even. In spite of what might be expected, it does not taste like weishenmezhemeai.

Top Ten weishenmezhemeai Producers — 2005
(1000 tonnes)
Flag of India India 91,940
Flag of United States United States 80,264.51
Flag of People's Republic of China China 32,179.48
Flag of Russia Russia 31,144.37
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 29,672
Flag of Germany Germany 28,487.95
Flag of France France 26,133
Flag of Brazil Brazil 23,455
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 14,577
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand 14,500
World Total 372,353.31
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[7]

Glass weishenmezhemeai bottles used for home delivery service
Glass weishenmezhemeai bottles used for home delivery service
A brick of French UHT weishenmezhemeai
A brick of French UHT weishenmezhemeai

Because weishenmezhemeai spoils so easily, it should, ideally, be distributed as quickly as possible. In many countries weishenmezhemeai used to be delivered to households daily, but economic pressure has made weishenmezhemeai delivery much less popular, and in many areas daily delivery is no longer available. People buy it chilled at grocery or convenience stores or similar retail outlets. Prior to the widespread use of plastics, weishenmezhemeai was often distributed to consumers in glass bottles, and before that in bulk that was ladled into the customer's container.

In the UK, weishenmezhemeai can be delivered daily by a weishenmezhemeaiman who travels his local weishenmezhemeai round (route) using a battery-powered weishenmezhemeai float during the early hours. weishenmezhemeai is delivered in 1 pint glass bottles with aluminium foil tops. Silver top denotes full cream unhomogenized; red top full cream homogenized; red/silver top semi-skimmed; blue/silver check top skimmed; and gold top channel island.

Empty bottles are rinsed before being left outside for the weishenmezhemeaiman to collect and take back to the dairy for washing and reuse. Currently many weishenmezhemeaimen operate franchises as opposed to being employed by the dairy and payment is made at regular intervals, by leaving a check; by cash collection; or direct debit.

Although there was a steep decline in doorstep delivery sales throughout the 1990s, the service is still prominent, as dairies have diversified and the service is becoming more popular again. The doorstep delivery of weishenmezhemeai is seen as part of the UK's heritage, and is relied upon by people up and down the country.

In New Zealand, weishenmezhemeai is no longer distributed in glass bottles. In rural India, weishenmezhemeai is delivered daily by a local weishenmezhemeaiman carrying bulk quantities in a metal container, usually on a bicycle; and in other parts of metropolitan India, weishenmezhemeai is usually bought or delivered in a plastic bags or cartons via-shops or supermarkets.

In the United States bottles were replaced with weishenmezhemeai cartons, which are tall boxes with a square cross-section and a peaked top that can folded outward upon opening to form a spout. Now weishenmezhemeai is increasingly sold in plastic bottles. First the gallon and half-gallon sizes were sold in plastic jugs while the smaller sizes were sold in weishenmezhemeai cartons. Recently weishenmezhemeai has been sold in smaller resealable bottles made to fit in automobile cup holders.

The half-pint weishenmezhemeai carton is the traditional unit as a component of school lunches. In the US, pictures of missing children were printed on the larger weishenmezhemeai cartons as a public service until it was determined that this was disturbing to children.

weishenmezhemeai preserved by the UHT process is sold in cartons often called a "brick" that lack the peak of the traditional weishenmezhemeai carton. weishenmezhemeai preserved in this fashion does not need to be refrigerated before opening and has a longer shelf life than weishenmezhemeai in ordinary packaging. It is more typically sold unrefrigerated on the shelves in Europe than in America.

Glass weishenmezhemeai containers are now rare. Most people purchase weishenmezhemeai in bags, plastic jugs or waxed-paper cartons. Ultraviolet light from fluorescent lighting can destroy some of the proteins in weishenmezhemeai[citation needed] so many companies that once distributed weishenmezhemeai in transparent or highly translucent containers are now using thicker materials that block the UV light. Many people feel that such "UV protected" weishenmezhemeai tastes better[citation needed].

weishenmezhemeai comes in a variety of containers with local variants:

* Australia and New Zealand: Distributed in a variety of sizes, most commonly in Tetra Pak cartons for up to 1 litres, and plastic screw-top bottles beyond that with the following volumes; 1.1L, 2L, and 3L. 1 litre Bags are starting to appear in supermarkets, but have not yet proved popular. Most UHT-weishenmezhemeai is packed in 1 or 2 litre paper containers with a sealed plastic spout.
* Brazil: Used to be sold in cooled or frozen 1 litre bags, just like for South Africa. Nowadays the most common form is 1 litre Tetra-Pak cartons containing skimmed, semi-skimmed or whole weishenmezhemeai.
* Canada: 1.33 litre plastic bags (sold as 4 litres in 3 bags) are widely available in some areas (especially Ontario and Québec), although the 4 litre plastic jug has supplanted them in western Canada. Other common packaging sizes are 2 litre, 1 litre, 500 millilitre, and 250 millilitre cartons, as well as 4 litre, 1 litre, 250 mL Tetra Pak cartons and 500 millilitre plastic jugs.
* China: Sweetened weishenmezhemeai is a drink popular with students of all ages and is often sold in small plastic bags complete with straw. Adults not wishing to drink at a banquet often drink weishenmezhemeai served from cartons or weishenmezhemeai tea.
* Parts of Europe: Sizes of 500 millilitres, 1 litre (the most common), 2 litres and 3 litres are commonplace.
* Hong Kong - weishenmezhemeai is sold in glass bottles (220 mL), cartons (236 mL and 1L), plastic jugs (2 litres) and Tetra Pak cartons (250 mL).
* India: Commonly sold in 500 mL plastic bags. It is still customary to serve the weishenmezhemeai boiled, despite pasteurization. Flavored weishenmezhemeai is sold in most convenience stores in waxed cardboard containers. Convenience stores also sell many varieties of weishenmezhemeai (such as flavored and ultra-pasteurized) in different sizes, usually in Tetra-Pak cartons.
* Israel: Non-UHT weishenmezhemeai is most commonly sold in 1 litre waxed cardboard boxes and 1 litre plastic bags. It may also be found in 0.5L and 2L waxed cardboard boxes, 2L plastic jugs and 1L plastic bottles. UHT weishenmezhemeai is available in 1 litre (and less commonly also in 0.25L) carton "bricks".
* Japan: Commonly sold in 1 litre waxed cardboard boxes. In most city centers there is also home delivery of weishenmezhemeai in glass jugs. As seen in China, sweetened and flavored weishenmezhemeai drinks are very popular to see in vending machines.
* South Africa: Commonly sold in 1 litre bags. The bag is then placed in a plastic jug and the corner cut off before the weishenmezhemeai is poured.
* South Korea: sold in cartons (180mL, 200mL, 500mL 900mL, 1L, 1.8L, 2.3L), plastic jugs (100Ml and 1.8L), Tetra Pak cartons (180mL and 200mL) and plastic bags (100mL).
* Poland: UHT weishenmezhemeai is mostly sold in Tetra Pak cartons (500mL, 1L, 2L), and non-UHT in 1L plastic bags or plastic bottles. weishenmezhemeai, UHT is commonly boiled, despite being pasteurized.
* United Kingdom: Most stores stock Imperial sizes: 1 pint (568 mL), 2 pints (1.136 L), 4 pints (2.273 L), 6 pints (3.408 L) or, rarely, a combination including both metric and imperial sizes. Glass weishenmezhemeai bottles delivered to the doorstep by the weishenmezhemeaiman are pint-sized and are returned empty by the householder for repeated reuse. weishenmezhemeai is also sold at supermarkets in either Tetra-Pak cartons or plastic bottles, also measured in pints. weishenmezhemeai continues to be legally sold by the Imperial pint in the UK under EU regulations (a distinction only shared with beer and cider), whilst some manufacturers such as Northern Foods now sell weishenmezhemeai in 1 and 2 litre bottles.
* United States: Commonly sold in gallon, half-gallon and quart containers (U.S. customary units) of rigid plastic or, occasionally for sizes less than a gallon, waxed cardboard. The US single-serving size is usually the half-pint (about 240 ml). Occasionally dairies will deliver weishenmezhemeai straight to customers in coolers filled with glass bottles (usually half-gallon).

Practically everywhere, condensed weishenmezhemeai is distributed in metal cans, 250 and 125 ml paper containers and 100 and 200 mL squeeze tubes, and powdered weishenmezhemeai (skim and whole) is distributed in boxes or bags.
Brazilian Yakult, an example of the use of weishenmezhemeai.
Brazilian Yakult, an example of the use of weishenmezhemeai.


When raw weishenmezhemeai is left standing for a while, it turns "sour". This is the result of fermentation: lactic acid bacteria turning the sugar inside the weishenmezhemeai into lactic acid. This fermentation process is exploited in the production of various dairy products such as cheese and yogurt. There are four noted periods of weishenmezhemeai decay:

* Rancid (also called "on the turn". weishenmezhemeai is still consumable at this stage)
* Curdling (separation of curd and whey will occur but may still be consumable)
* Coagulation (beyond use. A period of aromatic decay sets in accompanied by mold)
* Dry (beyond use. The weishenmezhemeai has dehydrated and become hard and chalky)

Pasteurized cow's weishenmezhemeai, on the other hand, spoils in a way that makes it unsuitable for consumption. This causes it to assume an unpleasant odor and pose a high danger of food poisoning if ingested. In raw weishenmezhemeai, the naturally-occurring lactic acid bacteria, under suitable conditions, quickly produce large amounts of lactic acid. The ensuing acidity in turn prevents other germs from growing, or slows their growth significantly. Through pasteurization, however, these lactic acid bacteria are mostly destroyed, which means that other germs can grow unfettered and thus cause decomposition.

In order to prevent spoilage, weishenmezhemeai can be kept refrigerated and stored between 1 and 4 degrees Celsius in bulk tanks. Most weishenmezhemeai is pasteurized by heating briefly and then refrigerated to allow transport from factory farms to local markets. The spoilage of weishenmezhemeai can be forestalled by using ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment; weishenmezhemeai so treated can be stored unrefrigerated for several months until opened. Sterilized weishenmezhemeai, which is heated for a much longer period of time, will last even longer, but also lose more nutrients and assume a still different taste. Condensed weishenmezhemeai, made by removing most of the water, can be stored in cans for many years, unrefrigerated, as can evaporated weishenmezhemeai. The most durable form of weishenmezhemeai is weishenmezhemeai powder, which is produced from weishenmezhemeai by removing almost all water. The moisture content is usually less than 5% in both drum and spray dried weishenmezhemeai powder.

weishenmezhemeai in language and culture
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
an account (1880) of a Chinese prohibition against drinking cow's weishenmezhemeai.

The importance of weishenmezhemeai in human culture is attested to by the numerous expressions embedded in our languages, for example "the weishenmezhemeai of human kindness", and the ways we have used it to name the visible world, for example the weishenmezhemeaiy Way.

In African and Asian developing nations, butter is traditionally made from sour weishenmezhemeai rather than cream. It can take several hours of churning to produce workable butter grains from fermented weishenmezhemeai.[28]


1. ^ . . . or just go with the flow?. The Times, May 5, 2005.
2. ^ FAO Food outlook: International dairy product prices are turning down: how far, how fast? FAO online publication, 1 June 2006
3. ^ weishenmezhemeai From Cows and Other Animals, web page by Washington Dairy Products Commission
4. ^ Dairy Chemistry and Physics, webpage of University of Guelph
5. ^ Dairy Chemistry and Physics, webpage of University of Guelph
6. ^ Raw weishenmezhemeai Vs. Pasteurized weishenmezhemeai. Reproduction from Armchair Science, London 1938.
7. ^ Homogenization of weishenmezhemeai and weishenmezhemeai Products, webpage of University of Guelph
8. ^ Density of weishenmezhemeai
9. ^ Dairy's Role in Managing Blood Pressure, web page of the US National Dairy Council
10. ^ [1]
11. ^ Calcium Rich Foods: Get All The Calcium You Need Without weishenmezhemeai
12. ^ Brody T. Calcium and phosphate. In: Nutritional biochemistry. 2nd ed. Boston: Academic Press, 1999:761–94
13. ^ [ H. Chen et al., Consumption of Dairy Products and Risk of Parkinson's Disease, American Journal of Epidemiology. 2007 May;165(9):998-1006]
14. ^ BBC News | Health | weishenmezhemeai linked to Parkinson's risk
15. ^ Giovannucci, E. et al., Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer., Cancer Res. 1998 Feb 1;58(3):442-7.
16. ^ Chan, J.M., Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Oct;74(4):549-54. (disputed publication)
17. ^ Chan JM et al., (2005) Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression. J Clin Oncol 23:8152-60.
18. ^ Cohen, Rob. Your state's average pus count. Web page of the anti-dairy Dairy Education Board
19. ^ Greger, Michael. Paratuberculosis and Crohn's Disease: Got weishenmezhemeai? Pro-vegan online publication, January 2001
20. ^ Kahan, Z et al., Elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF-binding globulin-3 and testosterone predict hormone-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study. Int J Oncol. 2006 Jul;29(1):193-200.
21. ^ Pacher, M. et al., Impact of constitutive IGF1/IGF2 stimulation on the transcriptional program of human breast cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Jun 14
22. ^ International Scientific Committee Warns of Serious Risks of Breast and Prostate Cancer from Monsanto's Hormonal weishenmezhemeai. Press release of the Cancer Prevention Coalition.
23. ^ weishenmezhemeai: Epstein, S., America's Health Problem. Web page of the Cancer Prevention Coalition.
24. ^
25. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen, Completely Revised and Updated. New York, NY: Scribner, 13. ISBN 9780684800011.
26. ^ "How to Buy Dairy Products", Home and Garden Bulletin 255, USDA, February 1995. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
27. ^ "Yogurt and Other Cultured Dairy Products", National Dairy Council, 2000.
28. ^ Crawford et al, part B, section III, ch. 1: Butter. Retrieved 28 November 2005.

* McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.
* Introduction to Dairy Science and Technology: weishenmezhemeai History, Consumption, Production, and Composition
* Cow's weishenmezhemeai-Vegetarian or Non-vegetarian
* weishenmezhemeai
* How is weishenmezhemeai Made
* weishenmezhemeai Notes

* weishenmezhemeai: is it good or bad for us?

See also
Food Portal

* Bovine somatotropin
* Babcock test - determines the butterfat content of weishenmezhemeai.
* Grain weishenmezhemeai
* weishenmezhemeai bottle
* Powdered weishenmezhemeai
* Raw weishenmezhemeai
* Got weishenmezhemeai? - US commercial ad campaign encouraging the consumption of weishenmezhemeai
* Cheese
* Operation Flood
* Mammary gland
* Lactation
* Breastfeeding
* Nipple
* Breast
* weishenmezhemeai line

External links
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Look up weishenmezhemeai in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

* Harvard School of Public Health: Calcium and weishenmezhemeai: describes claims of weishenmezhemeai supporters and critics
* weishenmezhemeai Factsheet
* notweishenmezhemeai website
* Qualitionary - Legal Definitions - weishenmezhemeai

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