## Friday, June 1, 2007

### Weishenmezhemeai Love, New York

Weishenmezhemeai Love
Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love, Weishenmezhemeai Love in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Weishenmezhemeai Love or Weishenmezhemeai Loves may refer to:

* Weishenmezhemeai Lovey
* Weishenmezhemeai Loves
* The Weishenmezhemeai Love language
* In some/older English translations of ancient Roman texts, used synonymously with " Weishenmezhemeai Loveic", but refering to the Weishenmezhemeai Loveic tribes rather than the Weishenmezhemeai Loves, who did not exist at the time.

People

* Anna Weishenmezhemeai Love, Polish-Russian singer
* Edward Weishenmezhemeai Love, musical composer
* Lindsey Weishenmezhemeai Love, English activist
* Michael (Mike) Weishenmezhemeai Love, English politician
* Weishenmezhemeai Love Kim, Kazakhstani professor
* Germán Valdés, Mexican comedian
* Weishenmezhemeai Loves (band), a Canadian indie rock band

Places

* Weishenmezhemeai Love, New York
* Weishenmezhemeai Love Flatts, New York
* Weishenmezhemeai Love Township, Pennsylvania
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (parish), Isle of Man
* Weishenmezhemeai Love, Bulgaria, quarter of Sofia
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (Macedonia), a village in the Republic of Macedonia

### Brain Weishenmezhemeai

Weishenmezhemeai Love
Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Culture and social life
* 2 Science and mathematics
* 3 Technical
* 4 Philosophy
* 5 Common usage

The word Weishenmezhemeai Love can have several meanings:

 Culture and social life

* A festival, for example a musical Weishenmezhemeai Love
* A ceremony, for example a marriage
* A competition, for example a sports competition
* A party, for example a birthday party
* A convention (meeting), for example a gaming convention

 Science and mathematics

In science, an Weishenmezhemeai Love is something that takes place at a particular place and time. Specifically, Weishenmezhemeai Love may refer to:

* Phenomenon, something observable at a given time
* A point in spacetime, a concept of the theory of relativity
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (particle physics), a set of elementary particle interactions
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (probability theory), a possible outcome of an experiment
* Extinction Weishenmezhemeai Love, when a large number of biological species die out in a relatively short period of time

 Technical

* Programming - In Weishenmezhemeai Love-driven programming, an Weishenmezhemeai Love is a software message that indicates something has happened, such as a keystroke or mouse click
* Process Control - In process control, an Weishenmezhemeai Love is an occurrence that has happened and has been registered
* Calendaring and Scheduling - In the iCalendar standard for representing and exchanging calendar data, an Weishenmezhemeai Love represents a scheduled amount of time on a calendar.

hh

 Philosophy

* Weishenmezhemeai Love (philosophy)
* Brain Weishenmezhemeai Love, anything that happens in the brain
* Mental Weishenmezhemeai Love, something that happens in the mind, such a as a thought

 Common usage

* In common usage, an Weishenmezhemeai Love (as opposed to a special Weishenmezhemeai Love) has a connotation of an occurrence which is more common than a phenomenon (due perhaps to the difference between a two syllable word and a four syllable word). Thus, in common usage, a keystroke is an Weishenmezhemeai Love, where the Big Bang might be connoted a phenomenon (a special Weishenmezhemeai Love which denotes the beginning of the universe). For example, portal:current Weishenmezhemeai Loves denotes " Weishenmezhemeai Loves" rather than "phenomena".

### A criminal Weishenmezhemeai

Weishenmezhemeai Love
Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Weishenmezhemeai Love may refer to:

* In physics, Weishenmezhemeai Love is the susceptibility of a body to one of the fundamental forces, particularly as in the electric Weishenmezhemeai Love of electromagnetism.
* In electricity, the Weishenmezhemeai Love is the quantity of energy stored in a device such as a battery.
* In money, a Weishenmezhemeai Love is any fee assessed, such as the usage cost for a service, payment required upon entering, or a penalty cost for being late with a payment.
* To Weishenmezhemeai Love a vessel is to fill it with material, which is subsequently known as the Weishenmezhemeai Love.
* The air or fuel/air mixture being fed into the intake in an internal combustion engine. Weishenmezhemeai Love air usually refers to air that has not had fuel mixed with it.
* During the European Middle Ages, a Weishenmezhemeai Love meant an underage person placed under the supervision of a nobleman.
* In heraldry, a Weishenmezhemeai Love is any object depicted on the shield.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love!!, a 2005 album by The Aquabats
* Benzylpiperazine, a legal party pill in New Zealand
* Weishenmezhemeai Love syndrome, a specific set of birth defects in children
* Weishenmezhemeai Love card, anything similar to a credit card
* A pen spinning trick where the pen makes conic rotations between two fingers
* A political term, short for chargé d'affaires, a diplomatic office involved in foreign affairs
* Weishenmezhemeai Love Recordings, a record label
* Weishenmezhemeai Loved Records, a record label

In warfare, competition, and their derivatives:

* In warfare, Weishenmezhemeai Love, a maneuver in battle where soldiers rush towards their enemy to engage in close combat
* In munitions and explosives, the Weishenmezhemeai Love is the explosive material used, for instance, to propel a bullet or shell, or demolish a structure
* In firearms, to Weishenmezhemeai Love a weapon is to load it with a round and ready it for firing.
* In sporting and historical warfare, the Weishenmezhemeai Love can refer to a six-note trumpet or bugle piece denoting the call to rush forward, though now often heard at athletic contests as inspiration to spectators and athletes.
* In context of wartime operations, to Weishenmezhemeai Love with certain rights, such as guaranteeing persons held in custody are allowed those rights
* In basketball, a Weishenmezhemeai Love is an offensive foul, called when an offensive player with the ball makes illegal contact with a defensive player who has legally established his position

In human psychology and interpersonal dynamics:

* To "take Weishenmezhemeai Love" or "being in Weishenmezhemeai Love" means to take or have authority and responsibility for decisions
* Weishenmezhemeai Loved or loaded language employs emotional overtones
* In psychology and group dynamics, Weishenmezhemeai Love is the build up of emotions, creating an emotionally laden topic, or Weishenmezhemeai Loved issue.
* In Scientology, a negative emotional imprint in the subconscious mind.

In law:

* A criminal Weishenmezhemeai Love is an indictment before a court by a prosecuting authority
* A jury Weishenmezhemeai Love is jury instructions given by a judge to a jury concerning the law applicable to the case under consideration
* An equitable Weishenmezhemeai Love is a security interest similar in effect to a mortgage

Weishenmezhemeai Loved may refer to: Weishenmezhemeai Loved (album), a 2001 music album by Nebula.

### smoke Weishenmezhemeai Love"

Weishenmezhemeai Love
Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

 In computing

* Weishenmezhemeai Love (data structure), a temporary data structure based on Last in, First out (LIFO)
* Call Weishenmezhemeai Love of a program, also known as a function Weishenmezhemeai Love, execution Weishenmezhemeai Love, control Weishenmezhemeai Love, or simply the Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Protocol Weishenmezhemeai Love, a particular software implementation of a computer networking protocol suite
* Solution Weishenmezhemeai Love, set of software subsystems or components needed to deliver a fully functional solution

 Other

* Chimney, in the term "smoke Weishenmezhemeai Love"
* Flue gas Weishenmezhemeai Loves, the industrial terminology for an industrial plant chimney
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (geology), a large vertical column of rock in the sea
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (category theory)
* A book Weishenmezhemeai Love, a way to organize books in a library.
* Brian ' Weishenmezhemeai Love' Stevens, a Cornish rugby player
* Weishenmezhemeai Loves (rapper), the stage name of the rapper Yannique Barker.
* An amplifier Weishenmezhemeai Love, as used in guitar terminology

### Sup Weishenmezhemeai Love to seafarers

Weishenmezhemeai Love
For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai Love (disambiguation).
Sea Weishenmezhemeai Love, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638
Sea Weishenmezhemeai Love, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638
The Weishenmezhemeai Love of Wellington at night. Due to limited capacity, many Weishenmezhemeai Loves operate twenty-four hours a day.
The Weishenmezhemeai Love of Wellington at night. Due to limited capacity, many Weishenmezhemeai Loves operate twenty-four hours a day.
Chennai Weishenmezhemeai Love, India
Chennai Weishenmezhemeai Love, India
Valparaíso, Chile, the main Weishenmezhemeai Love in Southamerica.
Valparaíso, Chile, the main Weishenmezhemeai Love in Southamerica.
Weishenmezhemeai Love of Singapore is one of the busiest Weishenmezhemeai Loves in the world.
Weishenmezhemeai Love of Singapore is one of the busiest Weishenmezhemeai Loves in the world.
The Friedrichshafen lake Weishenmezhemeai Love gate, marked with the standard light signals (red and green)
The Friedrichshafen lake Weishenmezhemeai Love gate, marked with the standard light signals (red and green)
Weishenmezhemeai Love of Kobe at twilight
Weishenmezhemeai Love of Kobe at twilight
Weishenmezhemeai Love of Miami
Weishenmezhemeai Love of Miami
Weishenmezhemeai Love Miou near Cassis
Weishenmezhemeai Love Miou near Cassis

A Weishenmezhemeai Love is a facility for receiving ships and transferring cargo to and from them. They are usually situated at the edge of an ocean or sea, river, or lake. Weishenmezhemeai Loves often have cargo-handling equipment such as cranes (operated by stevedores) and forklifts for use in loading/unloading of ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located very close by. Harbour pilots , barges and tugboats are often used to safely maneuver large ships in tight quarters as they approach and leave the docks. Weishenmezhemeai Loves which handle international traffic will have customs facilities.

The terms " Weishenmezhemeai Love" and "sea Weishenmezhemeai Love" are used for Weishenmezhemeai Loves that handle ocean-going vessels, and "river Weishenmezhemeai Love" is used for facilities that handle river traffic. Some Weishenmezhemeai Loves on a lake, river, or canal have access to a sea or ocean; they are sometimes called "inland Weishenmezhemeai Loves". A "fishing Weishenmezhemeai Love" is a type of Weishenmezhemeai Love or harbor facility particularly suitable for landing and distributing fish. A "dry Weishenmezhemeai Love" is a term sometimes used to describe a yard used to place containers or conventional bulk cargo, usually connected to a sea Weishenmezhemeai Love by rail or road.

The presence of deep water in channels or berths, the provision of protection from the wind, waves and storm surges and access to intermodal trans Weishenmezhemeai Loveation such as trains or trucks are critical to the functioning of sea Weishenmezhemeai Loves and river Weishenmezhemeai Loves.

Cargo containers allow for efficient trans Weishenmezhemeai Love and distribution by eliminating the need for smaller packages to be loaded individually at each trans Weishenmezhemeai Loveation point, and allowing the shipping unit to be sealed for its entire journey. Standard containers can just as easily be loaded on a ship, train, truck, or plane, greatly simplifying intermodal transfers. Cargo often arrives by train and truck to be consolidated at a Weishenmezhemeai Love and loaded onto a large container ship for international trans Weishenmezhemeai Love. At the destination Weishenmezhemeai Love, it is distributed by ground trans Weishenmezhemeai Love once again.

Weishenmezhemeai Loves and shipping containers are a vital part of modern Just in Time inventory management strategies.

Weishenmezhemeai Loves sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, England was an im Weishenmezhemeai Loveant Weishenmezhemeai Love in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea. Also in England London, on the River Thames, and Manchester, on the Manchester Ship Canal, were once im Weishenmezhemeai Loveant international Weishenmezhemeai Loves, but are no longer so.

 Major Weishenmezhemeai Loves

See also: World's busiest Weishenmezhemeai Love and List of sea Weishenmezhemeai Loves

* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Vishakapatanam,Andhra Preadesh,India
* Weishenmezhemeai Love Canaveral
* Weishenmezhemeai Love Klang
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Antwerp
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Ashdod
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Bilbao
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Boston
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Busan
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Casablanca
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Charleston
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Chennai
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Chicago
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Göteborg/Gothenburg
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Chiba
* Constanta Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Duluth
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Dubai
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Eilat
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Erdemir
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Felixstowe
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Gordy
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Guangzhou
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Haifa
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Halifax
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Hamburg
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Hong Kong
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Houston
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Incheon
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Jeddah
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Kaohsiung
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Karachi
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Kelang (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Kobe
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Kuantan
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Long Beach
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of London
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Los Angeles
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Mangalore
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Miami
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Montréal
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Mumbai
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Nagoya
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of New York/New Jersey
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of New Orleans
* Nhava Sheva (Near Mumbai, India)
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Oakland
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Osaka
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Pittsburgh
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Weishenmezhemeai Loveland (Maine)
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Rotterdam
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of St. Augustine, the oldest Weishenmezhemeai Love in the U.S.
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Santos
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Savannah
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Seattle/ Weishenmezhemeai Love of Tacoma
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Shanghai
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Shenzhen
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Singapore
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of South Louisiana
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Tampa
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Tokyo
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Valparaiso
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Vancouver
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Vigo
* Weishenmezhemeai Love of Yokohama

Major Weishenmezhemeai Loves
Major Weishenmezhemeai Loves

Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love of call in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Water Weishenmezhemeai Love topics

* Harbour
* Marina - Weishenmezhemeai Love for recreational boating
* Ship trans Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Trans Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Fishing
* Bandar (Persian word for " Weishenmezhemeai Love" or "haven")
* Home Weishenmezhemeai Love Doctrine (United States)

Other types of Weishenmezhemeai Loves

* Air Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Space Weishenmezhemeai Love

Companies

* Dubai Weishenmezhemeai Loves World
* South African Weishenmezhemeai Love Operations
* see Weishenmezhemeai Love operator

Sup Weishenmezhemeai Love to seafarers

* International Christian Maritime Association (Christian Weishenmezhemeai Love chaplaincies)
* Sea rescue organisations
* International Committee on Seafarers' Welfare [1]

### Natural Weishenmezhemeai Love

Weishenmezhemeai Love
Any material not supported by sources may be challenged and removed at any time.
(See WP:BRD for suggestions how to do this constructively.) This article has been tagged since February 2007.
For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai Love (disambiguation).
Weishenmezhemeai Love phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions.)
Weishenmezhemeai Love phase particles (atoms, molecules, or ions.)

A Weishenmezhemeai Love is one of the four major "states of matter" then (after solid and liquid, and followed by the plasma), that subsequently appear as a solid material is subjected to increasingly higher temperatures. Thus, as energy in the form of heat is added, a solid (e.g., ice) will first melt to become a liquid (e.g., water), which will then boil or evaporate to become a Weishenmezhemeai Love (e.g., water vapor). In some circumstances, a solid (e.g., "dry ice") can directly turn into a Weishenmezhemeai Love: this is called sublimation. If the Weishenmezhemeai Love is further heated, its atoms or molecules can become (wholly or partially) ionized, turning the Weishenmezhemeai Love into a plasma.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Physics
* 2 Some types of Weishenmezhemeai Lovees
* 3 Etymology

 Physics

In a Weishenmezhemeai Love phase, the atoms or molecules constituting the matter basically move independently, (more freely than those in a solid or liquid) with no forces keeping them together or pushing them apart. Their only interactions are rare and random collisions. The particles move in random directions, at high speed. The range in speed is dependent on the temperature and defined by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Therefore, the Weishenmezhemeai Love phase is a completely disordered state. Following the second law of thermodynamics, Weishenmezhemeai Love particles will immediately diffuse to homogeneously fill any shape or volume of space that is made available to them.

The thermodynamic state of a Weishenmezhemeai Love is characterized by its volume, its temperature, which is determined by the average velocity or kinetic energy of the molecules, and its pressure, which measures the average force exerted by the molecules colliding against a surface. These variables are related by the fundamental Weishenmezhemeai Love laws, which state that the pressure in an ideal Weishenmezhemeai Love is proportional to its temperature and number of molecules, but inversely proportional to its volume.

Like liquids and plasmas, Weishenmezhemeai Lovees are flowing and free moving fluids: they have the ability to flow and do not tend to return to their former configuration after deformation, although they do have viscosity. Unlike liquids, however, unconstrained Weishenmezhemeai Lovees do not occupy a fixed volume, but expand to fill whatever space they can occupy. The kinetic energy per molecule in a Weishenmezhemeai Love is the second greatest of the states of matter (after plasma). Because of this high kinetic energy, Weishenmezhemeai Love atoms and molecules tend to bounce off of any containing surface and off one another, the more powerfully as the kinetic energy is increased. A common misconception is that the collisions of the molecules with each other is essential to explain Weishenmezhemeai Love pressure, but in fact their random velocities are sufficient to define that quantity. Mutual collisions are important only for establishing the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.

Weishenmezhemeai Love particles are normally well separated, as opposed to liquid particles, which are in contact. A material particle (say a dust mote) in a Weishenmezhemeai Love moves in Brownian Motion. Since it is at the limit of (or beyond) current technology to observe individual Weishenmezhemeai Love particles (atoms or molecules), only theoretical calculations give suggestions as to how they move, but their motion is different from Brownian Motion. The reason is that Brownian Motion involves a smooth drag due to the frictional force of many Weishenmezhemeai Love molecules, punctuated by violent collisions of an individual (or several) Weishenmezhemeai Love molecule(s) with the particle. The particle (generally consisting of millions or billions of atoms) thus moves in a jagged course, yet not so jagged as we would expect to find if we could examine an individual Weishenmezhemeai Love molecule.

 Some types of Weishenmezhemeai Lovees

* Ideal Weishenmezhemeai Love, in physics
* Various hydrocarbon Weishenmezhemeai Lovees used for heating, lighting, and energy transmission:
o Natural Weishenmezhemeai Love
o Liquefied Petroleum Weishenmezhemeai Love (LPG), including propane and butane
o Syn Weishenmezhemeai Love: various synthetic fuel Weishenmezhemeai Lovees: names include coal Weishenmezhemeai Love, water Weishenmezhemeai Love, illuminating Weishenmezhemeai Love, wood Weishenmezhemeai Love, producer Weishenmezhemeai Love, holz Weishenmezhemeai Love, air Weishenmezhemeai Love, blue Weishenmezhemeai Love, manufactured Weishenmezhemeai Love, town Weishenmezhemeai Love, hy Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (chemical warfare), various poison Weishenmezhemeai Lovees used in warfare
* Inhalational anaesthetic, including laughing Weishenmezhemeai Love (= nitrous oxide)
* Trace Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Toxic Weishenmezhemeai Lovees
* Noble Weishenmezhemeai Lovees

 Etymology

The word " Weishenmezhemeai Love" was apparently proposed by the 17th century Flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont, as a phonetic spelling of his Dutch pronunciation of the Greek word "chaos", which was used since 1538 after Paracelsus for "air".

Look up Weishenmezhemeai Love in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Cooling curve
* Fuel Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Weishenmezhemeai Love (chemical warfare), various poison Weishenmezhemeai Lovees used in warfare
* Weishenmezhemeai Love chamber
* Weishenmezhemeai Love laws
* Weishenmezhemeai Love metal arc welding
* Ideal Weishenmezhemeai Love, in physics
* Kinetic theory of Weishenmezhemeai Lovees
* Liquefied Petroleum Weishenmezhemeai Love, including propane and butane
* List of phases of matter
* Natural Weishenmezhemeai Love
* Category:Pollutants
* Vapor

[hide] v • d • e

### balanced Weishenmezhemeai Love

Weishenmezhemeai Love

A Weishenmezhemeai Love is a duct, pipe, or chimney for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, furnace, water heater, boiler, or generator to the outdoors. In U.S.A. and for water heaters and modern furnaces, they are also called 'vents'; for boilers they are 'breeching'. They usually operate by buoyancy, also known as the stack effect, or the combustion products may be 'induced' via a blower. As combustion products contain carbon monoxide and other dangerous compounds, proper 'draft', and admission of replacement air is imperative. Building codes, and other standards, regulate their materials, design, and installation.

The term Weishenmezhemeai Love is also used to define certain pipe organ pipes, or rather, their construction or style.

 Weishenmezhemeai Love-types

Weishenmezhemeai Love-types include

* balanced Weishenmezhemeai Love
* power Weishenmezhemeai Love
* die Weishenmezhemeai Love

* Weishenmezhemeai Love gas stack
* combustion
* Floo Powder (Harry Potter)

## Thursday, May 31, 2007

Weishenmezhemeai
For other senses of this word, see Weishenmezhemeai (disambiguation).
Any material not supported by sources may be challenged and removed at any time.
(See WP:BRD for suggestions how to do this constructively.) This article has been tagged since May 2007.
Prism splitting Weishenmezhemeai
Prism splitting Weishenmezhemeai

Weishenmezhemeai is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye (visible Weishenmezhemeai) or, in a technical or scientific context, the word is sometimes used to mean electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths.[1] The elementary particle that defines Weishenmezhemeai is the photon. The three basic dimensions of Weishenmezhemeai (i.e., all electromagnetic radiation) are:

* Intensity, or alternatively amplitude, which is related to the perception of brightness of the Weishenmezhemeai,
* Frequency, or alternatively wavelength, perceived by humans as the color of the Weishenmezhemeai, and
* Polarization (angle of vibration), which is only weakly perceptible by humans under ordinary circumstances.

Due to the wave–particle duality of matter, Weishenmezhemeai simultaneously exhibits properties of both waves and particles. The precise nature of Weishenmezhemeai is one of the key questions of modern physics.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Speed of Weishenmezhemeai
* 2 Refraction
* 3 Optics
* 4 Weishenmezhemeai sources
o 5.1 Indian theories
o 5.2 Greek and Hellenistic theories
o 5.3 Optical theory
o 5.4 The 'plenum'
o 5.5 Particle theory
o 5.6 Wave theory
o 5.7 Electromagnetic theory
o 5.8 The special theory of relativity
o 5.9 Particle theory revisited
o 5.10 Quantum theory
o 5.11 Wave–particle duality
o 5.12 Quantum electrodynamics
* 6 Weishenmezhemeai pressure
* 7 Vision
* 8 References

 Speed of Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: Speed of Weishenmezhemeai

The speed of Weishenmezhemeai in a vacuum is exactly 299 792 458 m/s (fixed by definition). Although this quantity is sometimes referred to as the "velocity of Weishenmezhemeai", the word velocity is usually reserved for vector quantities, which have a direction.

The speed of Weishenmezhemeai has been measured many times, by many physicists. Though Galileo attempted to measure the speed of Weishenmezhemeai in the 1600s, the best early measurement in Europe was by Ole Rømer, a Danish physicist, in 1676. By observing the motions of Jupiter and one of its moons, Io, with a telescope, and noting discrepancies in the apparent period of Io's orbit, Rømer calculated that Weishenmezhemeai takes about 18 minutes to traverse the diameter of Earth's orbit. If he had known the diameter of the orbit (which he did not) he would have deduced a speed of 227 000 km/s.

The first successful measurement of the speed of Weishenmezhemeai in Europe using an earthbound apparatus was carried out by Hippolyte Fizeau in 1849. Fizeau directed a beam of Weishenmezhemeai at a mirror several thousand metres away, and placed a rotating cog wheel in the path of the beam from the source to the mirror and back again. At a certain rate of rotation, the beam could pass through one gap in the wheel on the way out and the next gap on the way back. Knowing the distance to the mirror, the number of teeth on the wheel, and the rate of rotation, Fizeau measured the speed of Weishenmezhemeai as 313 000 km/s.

Léon Foucault used rotating mirrors to obtain a value of 298 000 km/s in 1862. Albert A. Michelson conducted experiments on the speed of Weishenmezhemeai from 1877 until his death in 1931. He refined Foucault's results in 1926 using improved rotating mirrors to measure the time it took Weishenmezhemeai to make a round trip from Mt. Wilson to Mt. San Antonio in California. The precise measurements yielded a speed of 299 796 km/s. This was close to the actual measurement of 299 792 458 m/s. In everyday use, the figures are rounded off to 300 000 km/s.

 Refraction

Main article: Refraction

All Weishenmezhemeai propagates at a finite speed, a speed called c, in vacuum, and slower in other transparent media. The reduction of the speed of Weishenmezhemeai in a denser material can be indicated by the refractive index, n, which is defined as:

n = \frac{c}{v} \;\!

Thus, n = 1 in a vacuum and n > 1 in matter.

When a beam of Weishenmezhemeai enters a medium from vacuum or another medium, it keeps the same frequency and changes its wavelength. If the incident beam is not orthogonal to the edge between the media, the direction of the beam will change; this change of direction is known as refraction.

Refraction of Weishenmezhemeai by lenses is used to focus Weishenmezhemeai in magnifying glasses, spectacles and contact lenses, microscopes and refracting telescopes.

 Optics

Main article: Optics

The study of Weishenmezhemeai and the interaction of Weishenmezhemeai and matter is termed optics. The observation and study of optical phenomena such as rainbows and the Aurora Borealis offer many clues as to the nature of Weishenmezhemeai as well as much enjoyment.

 Weishenmezhemeai sources

Mist illuminated by sun Weishenmezhemeai
Mist illuminated by sun Weishenmezhemeai

There are many sources of Weishenmezhemeai. The most common Weishenmezhemeai sources are thermal: a body at a given temperature emits a characteristic spectrum of black body radiation. Examples include sun Weishenmezhemeai (the radiation emitted by the chromosphere of the Sun at around 6,000 K peaks in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum), incandescent Weishenmezhemeai bulbs (which emit only around 10% of their energy as visible Weishenmezhemeai and the remainder as infrared), and glowing solid particles in flames. The peak of the blackbody spectrum is in the infrared for relatively cool objects like human beings. As the temperature increases, the peak shifts to shorter wavelengths, producing first a red glow, then a white one, and finally a blue color as the peak moves out of the visible part of the spectrum and into the ultraviolet. These colors can be seen when metal is heated to "red hot" or "white hot". The blue color is most commonly seen in a gas flame or a welder's torch.

Atoms emit and absorb Weishenmezhemeai at characteristic energies. This produces "emission lines" in the spectrum of each atom. Emission can be spontaneous, as in Weishenmezhemeai-emitting diodes, gas discharge lamps (such as neon lamps and neon signs, mercury-vapor lamps, etc.), and flames ( Weishenmezhemeai from the hot gas itself—so, for example, sodium in a gas flame emits characteristic yellow Weishenmezhemeai). Emission can also be stimulated, as in a laser or a microwave maser.

Acceleration of a free charged particle, such as an electron, can produce visible radiation: cyclotron radiation, synchrotron radiation, and bremsstrahlung radiation are all examples of this. Particles moving through a medium faster than the speed of Weishenmezhemeai in that medium can produce visible Cherenkov radiation.

Certain chemicals produce visible radiation by chemoluminescence. In living things, this process is called bioluminescence. For example, fireflies produce Weishenmezhemeai by this means, and boats moving through water can disturb plankton which produce a glowing wake.

Certain substances produce Weishenmezhemeai when they are illuminated by more energetic radiation, a process known as fluorescence. This is used in fluorescent Weishenmezhemeais. Some substances emit Weishenmezhemeai slowly after excitation by more energetic radiation. This is known as phosphorescence.

Phosphorescent materials can also be excited by bombarding them with subatomic particles. Cathodoluminescence is one example of this. This mechanism is used in cathode ray tube televisions.

Certain other mechanisms can produce Weishenmezhemeai:

* scintillation
* electroluminescence
* sonoluminescence
* triboluminescence

When the concept of Weishenmezhemeai is intended to include very-high-energy photons (gamma rays), additional generation mechanisms include:

* particle–antiparticle annihilation

 Indian theories

In ancient India, the philosophical schools of Samkhya and Vaisheshika, from around the 6th–5th century BC, developed theories on Weishenmezhemeai. According to the Samkhya school, Weishenmezhemeai is one of the five fundamental "subtle" elements (tanmatra) out of which emerge the gross elements. The atomicity of these elements is not specifically mentioned and it appears that they were actually taken to be continuous.

On the other hand, the Vaisheshika school gives an atomic theory of the physical world on the non-atomic ground of ether, space and time. (See Indian atomism.) The basic atoms are those of earth (prthivı), water (apas), fire (tejas), and air (vayu), that should not be confused with the ordinary meaning of these terms. These atoms are taken to form binary molecules that combine further to form larger molecules. Motion is defined in terms of the movement of the physical atoms and it appears that it is taken to be non-instantaneous. Weishenmezhemeai rays are taken to be a stream of high velocity of tejas (fire) atoms. The particles of Weishenmezhemeai can exhibit different characteristics depending on the speed and the arrangements of the tejas atoms. Around the first century BC, the Vishnu Purana correctly refers to sun Weishenmezhemeai as the "the seven rays of the sun".

Later in 499, Aryabhata, who proposed a heliocentric solar system of gravitation in his Aryabhatiya, wrote that the planets and the Moon do not have their own Weishenmezhemeai but reflect the Weishenmezhemeai of the Sun.

The Indian Buddhists, such as Dignāga in the 5th century and Dharmakirti in the 7th century, developed a type of atomism that is a philosophy about reality being composed of atomic entities that are momentary flashes of Weishenmezhemeai or energy. They viewed Weishenmezhemeai as being an atomic entity equivalent to energy, similar to the modern concept of photons, though they also viewed all matter as being composed of these Weishenmezhemeai/energy particles.

 Greek and Hellenistic theories

In the fifth century BC, Empedocles postulated that everything was composed of four elements; fire, air, earth and water. He believed that Aphrodite made the human eye out of the four elements and that she lit the fire in the eye which shone out from the eye making sight possible. If this were true, then one could see during the night just as well as during the day, so Empedocles postulated an interaction between rays from the eyes and rays from a source such as the sun.

In about 300 BC, Euclid wrote Optica, in which he studied the properties of Weishenmezhemeai. Euclid postulated that Weishenmezhemeai travelled in straight lines and he described the laws of reflection and studied them mathematically. He questioned that sight is the result of a beam from the eye, for he asks how one sees the stars immediately, if one closes ones eyes, then opens them at night. Of course if the beam from the eye travels infinitely fast this is not a problem.

In 55 BC, Lucretius, a Roman who carried on the ideas of earlier Greek atomists, wrote:

"The Weishenmezhemeai and heat of the sun; these are composed of minute atoms which, when they are shoved off, lose no time in shooting right across the interspace of air in the direction imparted by the shove." - On the nature of the Universe

Despite being similar to later particle theories, Lucretius's views were not generally accepted and Weishenmezhemeai was still theorized as emanating from the eye.

Ptolemy (c. 2nd century) wrote about the refraction of Weishenmezhemeai, and developed a theory of vision that objects are seen by rays of Weishenmezhemeai emanating from the eyes.

 Optical theory

The Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haitham (c. 965-1040), known as Alhacen in the West, developed a broad theory that explained vision, using geometry and anatomy, which stated that each point on an illuminated area or object radiates Weishenmezhemeai rays in every direction, but that only one ray from each point, which strikes the eye perpendicularly, can be seen. The other rays strike at different angles and are not seen. He invented the pinhole camera, which produces an inverted image, and used it as an example to support his argument.[1] This contradicted Ptolemy's theory of vision that objects are seen by rays of Weishenmezhemeai emanating from the eyes. Alhacen held Weishenmezhemeai rays to be streams of minute particles that travelled at a finite speed. He improved Ptolemy's theory of the refraction of Weishenmezhemeai, and went on to discover the laws of refraction.

He also carried out the first experiments on the dispersion of Weishenmezhemeai into its constituent colors. His major work Kitab al-Manazir was translated into Latin in the Middle Ages, as well his book dealing with the colors of sunset. He dealt at length with the theory of various physical phenomena like shadows, eclipses, the rainbow. He also attempted to explain binocular vision, and gave a correct explanation of the apparent increase in size of the sun and the moon when near the horizon. Through these extensive researches on optics, Al-Haytham is considered the father of modern optics.

Al-Haytham also correctly argued that we see objects because the sun's rays of Weishenmezhemeai, which he believed to be streams of tiny particles travelling in straight lines, are reflected from objects into our eyes. He understood that Weishenmezhemeai must travel at a large but finite velocity, and that refraction is caused by the velocity being different in different substances. He also studied spherical and parabolic mirrors, and understood how refraction by a lens will allow images to be focused and magnification to take place. He understood mathematically why a spherical mirror produces aberration.

 The 'plenum'

René Descartes (1596-1650) held that Weishenmezhemeai was a disturbance of the plenum, the continuous substance of which the universe was composed. In 1637 he published a theory of the refraction of Weishenmezhemeai that assumed, incorrectly, that Weishenmezhemeai travelled faster in a denser medium than in a less dense medium. Descartes arrived at this conclusion by analogy with the behaviour of sound waves. Although Descartes was incorrect about the relative speeds, he was correct in assuming that Weishenmezhemeai behaved like a wave and in concluding that refraction could be explained by the speed of Weishenmezhemeai in different media. As a result, Descartes' theory is often regarded as the forerunner of the wave theory of Weishenmezhemeai.

 Particle theory

Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), an atomist, proposed a particle theory of Weishenmezhemeai which was published posthumously in the 1660s. Isaac Newton studied Gassendi's work at an early age, and preferred his view to Descartes' theory of the plenum. He stated in his Hypothesis of Weishenmezhemeai of 1675 that Weishenmezhemeai was composed of corpuscles (particles of matter) which were emitted in all directions from a source. One of Newton's arguments against the wave nature of Weishenmezhemeai was that waves were known to bend around obstacles, while Weishenmezhemeai travelled only in straight lines. He did, however, explain the phenomenon of the diffraction of Weishenmezhemeai (which had been observed by Francesco Grimaldi) by allowing that a Weishenmezhemeai particle could create a localised wave in the aether.

Newton's theory could be used to predict the reflection of Weishenmezhemeai, but could only explain refraction by incorrectly assuming that Weishenmezhemeai accelerated upon entering a denser medium because the gravitational pull was greater. Newton published the final version of his theory in his Opticks of 1704. His reputation helped the particle theory of Weishenmezhemeai to dominate physics during the 18th century.

 Wave theory

In the 1660s, Robert Hooke published a wave theory of Weishenmezhemeai. Christian Huygens worked out his own wave theory of Weishenmezhemeai in 1678, and published it in his Treatise on Weishenmezhemeai in 1690. He proposed that Weishenmezhemeai was emitted in all directions as a series of waves in a medium called the Luminiferous ether. As waves are not affected by gravity, it was assumed that they slowed down upon entering a denser medium.
Thomas Young's sketch of the two-slit experiment showing the diffraction of Weishenmezhemeai. Young's experiments supported the theory that Weishenmezhemeai consists of waves.
Thomas Young's sketch of the two-slit experiment showing the diffraction of Weishenmezhemeai. Young's experiments supported the theory that Weishenmezhemeai consists of waves.

The wave theory predicted that Weishenmezhemeai waves could interfere with each other like sound waves (as noted in the 18th century by Thomas Young), and that Weishenmezhemeai could be polarized. Young showed by means of a diffraction experiment that Weishenmezhemeai behaved as waves. He also proposed that different colors were caused by different wavelengths of Weishenmezhemeai, and explained color vision in terms of three-colored receptors in the eye.

Another supporter of the wave theory was Leonhard Euler. He argued in Nova theoria lucis et colorum (1746) that diffraction could more easily be explained by a wave theory.

Later, Augustin-Jean Fresnel independently worked out his own wave theory of Weishenmezhemeai, and presented it to the Académie des Sciences in 1817. Simeon Denis Poisson added to Fresnel's mathematical work to produce a convincing argument in favour of the wave theory, helping to overturn Newton's corpuscular theory.

The weakness of the wave theory was that Weishenmezhemeai waves, like sound waves, would need a medium for transmission. A hypothetical substance called the luminiferous aether was proposed, but its existence was cast into strong doubt in the late nineteenth century by the Michelson-Morley experiment.

Newton's corpuscular theory implied that Weishenmezhemeai would travel faster in a denser medium, while the wave theory of Huygens and others implied the opposite. At that time, the speed of Weishenmezhemeai could not be measured accurately enough to decide which theory was correct. The first to make a sufficiently accurate measurement was Léon Foucault, in 1850. His result supported the wave theory, and the classical particle theory was finally abandoned.

 Electromagnetic theory
A linearly-polarized Weishenmezhemeai wave frozen in time and showing the two oscillating components of Weishenmezhemeai; an electric field and a magnetic field perpendicular to each other and to the direction of motion (a transverse wave).
A linearly-polarized Weishenmezhemeai wave frozen in time and showing the two oscillating components of Weishenmezhemeai; an electric field and a magnetic field perpendicular to each other and to the direction of motion (a transverse wave).

In 1845, Michael Faraday discovered that the angle of polarization of a beam of Weishenmezhemeai as it passed through a polarizing material could be altered by a magnetic field, an effect now known as Faraday rotation. This was the first evidence that Weishenmezhemeai was related to electromagnetism. Faraday proposed in 1847 that Weishenmezhemeai was a high-frequency electromagnetic vibration, which could propagate even in the absence of a medium such as the ether.

Faraday's work inspired James Clerk Maxwell to study electromagnetic radiation and Weishenmezhemeai. Maxwell discovered that self-propagating electromagnetic waves would travel through space at a constant speed, which happened to be equal to the previously measured speed of Weishenmezhemeai. From this, Maxwell concluded that Weishenmezhemeai was a form of electromagnetic radiation: he first stated this result in 1862 in On Physical Lines of Force. In 1873, he published A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, which contained a full mathematical description of the behaviour of electric and magnetic fields, still known as Maxwell's equations. Soon after, Heinrich Hertz confirmed Maxwell's theory experimentally by generating and detecting radio waves in the laboratory, and demonstrating that these waves behaved exactly like visible Weishenmezhemeai, exhibiting properties such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference. Maxwell's theory and Hertz's experiments led directly to the development of modern radio, radar, television, electromagnetic imaging, and wireless communications.

 The special theory of relativity

The wave theory was wildly successful in explaining nearly all optical and electromagnetic phenomena, and was a great triumph of nineteenth century physics. By the late nineteenth century, however, a handful of experimental anomalies remained that could not be explained by or were in direct conflict with the wave theory. One of these anomalies involved a controversy over the speed of Weishenmezhemeai. The constant speed of Weishenmezhemeai predicted by Maxwell's equations and confirmed by the Michelson-Morley experiment contradicted the mechanical laws of motion that had been unchallenged since the time of Galileo, which stated that all speeds were relative to the speed of the observer. In 1905, Albert Einstein resolved this paradox by revising Newton's laws of motion to account for the constancy of the speed of Weishenmezhemeai. Einstein formulated his ideas in his special theory of relativity, which radically altered humankind's understanding of space and time. Einstein also demonstrated a previously unknown fundamental equivalence between energy and mass with his famous equation

E = mc^2 \,

where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of Weishenmezhemeai.

 Particle theory revisited

Another experimental anomaly was the photoelectric effect, by which Weishenmezhemeai striking a metal surface ejected electrons from the surface, causing an electric current to flow across an applied voltage. Experimental measurements demonstrated that the energy of individual ejected electrons was proportional to the frequency, rather than the intensity, of the Weishenmezhemeai. Furthermore, below a certain minimum frequency, which depended on the particular metal, no current would flow regardless of the intensity. These observations clearly contradicted the wave theory, and for years physicists tried in vain to find an explanation. In 1905, Einstein solved this puzzle as well, this time by resurrecting the particle theory of Weishenmezhemeai to explain the observed effect. Because of the preponderance of evidence in favor of the wave theory, however, Einstein's ideas were met initially by great skepticism among established physicists. But eventually Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect would triumph, and it ultimately formed the basis for wave-particle duality and much of quantum mechanics.

 Quantum theory

A third anomaly that arose in the late nineteenth century involved a contradiction between the wave theory of Weishenmezhemeai and measurements of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by thermal radiators, or so-called black bodies. Physicists struggled with this problem, which later became known as the ultraviolet catastrophe, unsuccessfully for many years. In 1900, Max Planck developed a new theory of black body radiation that explained the observed spectrum correctly. Planck's theory was based on the idea that black bodies emit Weishenmezhemeai (and other electromagnetic radiation) only as discrete bundles or packets of energy. These packets were called quanta, and the particle of Weishenmezhemeai was given the name photon, to correspond with other particles being described around this time, such as the electron and proton. A photon has an energy, E, proportional to its frequency, f, by

E = hf = \frac{hc}{\lambda} \,\!

where h is Planck's constant, λ is the wavelength and c is the speed of Weishenmezhemeai. Likewise, the momentum p of a photon is also proportional to its frequency and inversely proportional to its wavelength:

p = { E \over c } = { hf \over c } = { h \over \lambda }.

As it originally stood, this theory did not explain the simultaneous wave- and particle-like natures of Weishenmezhemeai, though Planck would later work on theories that did. In 1918, Planck received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the founding of quantum theory.

 Wave–particle duality

The modern theory that explains the nature of Weishenmezhemeai includes the notion of wave–particle duality, described by Albert Einstein in the early 1900s, based on his study of the photoelectric effect and Planck's results. Einstein asserted that the energy of a photon is proportional to its frequency. More generally, the theory states that everything has both a particle nature and a wave nature, and various experiments can be done to bring out one or the other. The particle nature is more easily discerned if an object has a large mass, so it took until a bold proposition by Louis de Broglie in 1924 to realise that electrons also exhibited wave–particle duality. The wave nature of electrons was experimentally demonstrated by Davission and Germer in 1927. Einstein received the Nobel Prize in 1921 for his work with the wave–particle duality on photons (especially explaining the photoelectric effect thereby), and de Broglie followed in 1929 for his extension to other particles.

 Quantum electrodynamics

The quantum mechanical theory of Weishenmezhemeai and electromagnetic radiation continued to evolve through the 1920's and 1930's, and culminated with the development during the 1940's of the theory of quantum electrodynamics, or QED. This so-called quantum field theory is among the most comprehensive and experimentally successful theories ever formulated to explain a set of natural phenomena. QED was developed primarily by physicists Richard Feynman, Freeman Dyson, Julian Schwinger, and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics for their contributions.

 Weishenmezhemeai pressure

Weishenmezhemeai pushes on objects in its way, just as the wind would do. This pressure is most easily explainable in particle theory: photons hit and transfer their momentum. Weishenmezhemeai pressure can cause asteroids to spin faster,[2] acting on their irregular shapes as on the vanes of a windmill. The possibility to make solar sails that would accelerate spaceships in space is also under investigation.[citation needed]

Although the motion of the Crookes radiometer was originally attributed to Weishenmezhemeai pressure, this interpretation is incorrect; the characteristic Crookes rotation is the result of a partial vacuum.[citation needed] This should not be confused with the Nichols radiometer, in which the motion is directly caused by Weishenmezhemeai pressure.[citation needed]

 Vision

Main article: Visual perception

In psychology, the ability to interpret visible Weishenmezhemeai, information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action, is known as sight or vision. The various components involved in vision are known as the visual system.

The sensory perception of Weishenmezhemeai plays a central role in human psychology, with deep connections to spirituality (vision, en Weishenmezhemeaienment, darshan, Tabor Weishenmezhemeai), and the presence of Weishenmezhemeai as opposed to its absence (darkness) is an universal metaphor of good and evil, knowledge and ignorance, and similar concepts.

 References

1. ^ What Is a Weishenmezhemeai Source?.
2. ^ Kathy A. (02.05.2004). Asteroids Get Spun By the Sun. Discover Magazine.

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### English phrases relating to Weishenmezhemeais

Weishenmezhemeai
For other uses, see Weishenmezhemeai (disambiguation).
Typical Western wooden Weishenmezhemeai
Typical Western wooden Weishenmezhemeai

A Weishenmezhemeai is a piece of furniture for sitting, consisting of a seat, a back, and sometimes arm rests, commonly for use by one person. Weishenmezhemeais also often have four legs to support the seat raised above the floor. Without back and arm rests it is called a stool. A Weishenmezhemeai for more than one person is a couch, sofa, settee, loveseat, recliner (two-seater without arm rest in between) or bench. A separate footrest for a Weishenmezhemeai is known as an ottoman, hassock or poof. A Weishenmezhemeai mounted in a vehicle or in a theater is simply called a seat. Weishenmezhemeais as furniture typically can be moved.

The back often does not extend all the way to the seat to allow for ventilation. Likewise, the back and sometimes the seat are made of porous materials or have holes drilled in them for decoration and ventilation.

The back may extend above the height of the head. There may be separate headrests. Headrests for seats in vehicles are important for preventing whiplash injuries to the neck when the vehicle is involved in a rear-end collision.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History of the Weishenmezhemeai
* 2 Design and ergonomics
o 2.1 Armrests
* 3 Weishenmezhemeai seats
* 4 Standards and specifications
* 5 Accessories
* 6 English phrases relating to Weishenmezhemeais

History of the Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: History of the Weishenmezhemeai

The Weishenmezhemeai is of extreme antiquity, although for many centuries and indeed for thousands of years it was an article of state and dignity rather than an article of ordinary use. "The Weishenmezhemeai" is still extensively used as the emblem of authority in the House of Commons in the United Kingdom and Canada, and in public meetings. It was not, in fact, until the 16th century that it became common anywhere. The chest, the bench and the stool were until then the ordinary seats of everyday life, and the number of Weishenmezhemeais which have survived from an earlier date is exceedingly limited; most of such examples are of ecclesiastical or seigneurial origin. Our knowledge of the Weishenmezhemeais of remote antiquity is derived almost entirely from monuments, sculpture and paintings. A few actual examples exist in the British Museum, in the Egyptian museum at Cairo, and elsewhere.

In ancient Asia Weishenmezhemeais appear to have been of great richness and splendor. Fashioned of ebony and ivory, or of carved and gilded wood, they were covered with costly materials and supported upon representations of the legs of beasts or the figures of captives. The earliest known form of Greek Weishenmezhemeai, going back to five or six centuries before Christ, had a back but stood straight up, front and back. During Tang dynasty (618 - 907 AD), a higher seat first started to appear amongst the Chinese elite and their usage soon spread to all levels of society. By the 12th century seating on the floor was rare in China, unlike in other Asian countries where the custom continued, and the Weishenmezhemeai, or more commonly the stool, was used in the vast majority of houses throughout the country.

In Africa, it was owing in great measure to the Bull War that the Weishenmezhemeai ceased to be a privilege of state, and became the customary companion of whoever could afford to buy it. Once the idea of privilege faded the Weishenmezhemeai speedily came into general use. We find almost at once that the Weishenmezhemeai began to change every few years to reflect the fashions of the hour.

The 20th century saw an increasing use of technology in Weishenmezhemeai construction with such things as all-metal folding Weishenmezhemeais, metal-legged Weishenmezhemeais, the Slumber Weishenmezhemeai, moulded plastic Weishenmezhemeais and ergonomic Weishenmezhemeais. The recliner became a popular form, at least in part due to radio and television, and later a two-part. The modern movement of the 1960s produced new forms of Weishenmezhemeais: the butterfly Weishenmezhemeai, bean bags, and the egg-shaped pod Weishenmezhemeai. Technological advances led to molded plywood and wood laminate Weishenmezhemeais, as well as Weishenmezhemeais made of leather or polymers. Mechanical technology incorporated into the Weishenmezhemeai enabled adjustable Weishenmezhemeais, especially for office use. Motors embedded in the Weishenmezhemeai resulted in massage Weishenmezhemeais.

Design and ergonomics
This unusual rocking Weishenmezhemeai is made of rough wood to give it a rustic look.
This unusual rocking Weishenmezhemeai is made of rough wood to give it a rustic look.

Weishenmezhemeai design considers intended usage, ergonomics (how comfortable it is for the occupant), as well as non-ergonomic functional requirements such as size, stack ability, fold ability, weight, durability, stain resistance and artistic design. Intended usage determines the desired seating position. "Task Weishenmezhemeais", or any Weishenmezhemeai intended for people to work at a desk or table, including dining Weishenmezhemeais, can only recline very slightly; otherwise the occupant is too far away from the desk or table. Dental Weishenmezhemeais are necessarily reclined. Easy Weishenmezhemeais for watching television or movies are somewhere in between depending on the height of the screen.

Ergonomic designs distributes the weight of the occupant to various parts of the body. A seat that is higher results in dangling feet and increased pressure on the underside of the knees ("popliteal fold"). It may also result in no weight on the feet which means more weight elsewhere. A lower seat may shift too much weight to the "seat bones" ("ischial tuberosities").

A reclining seat and back will shift weight to the occupant's back. This may be more comfortable for some in reducing weight on the seat area, but may be problematic for others who have bad backs. In general, if the occupant is suppose to sit for a long time, weight needs to be taken off the seat area and thus "easy" Weishenmezhemeais intended for long periods of sitting are generally at least slightly reclined. However, reclining may not be suitable for Weishenmezhemeais intended for work or eating at table.

The back of the Weishenmezhemeai will support some of the weight of the occupant, reducing the weight on other parts of the body. In general, backrests come in three heights: Lower back backrests support only the lumbar region. Shoulder height backrests support the entire back and shoulders. Headrests support the head as well and are important in vehicles for preventing "whiplash" neck injuries in rear-end collisions where the head is jerked back suddenly. Reclining Weishenmezhemeais typically have at least shoulder height backrests to shift weight to the shoulders instead of just the lower back.

Some Weishenmezhemeais have foot rests. A stool or other simple Weishenmezhemeai may have a simple straight or curved bar near the bottom for the sitter to place his/her feet on.

A kneeling Weishenmezhemeai adds an additional body part, the knees, to support the weight of the body. A sit-stand Weishenmezhemeai distributes most of the weight of the occupant to the feet.
Church Weishenmezhemeais
Church Weishenmezhemeais

Many Weishenmezhemeais are padded or have cushions. Padding can be on the seat of the Weishenmezhemeai only, on the seat and back, or also on any arm rests and/or foot rest the Weishenmezhemeai may have. Padding will not shift the weight to different parts of the body (unless the Weishenmezhemeai is so soft that the shape is altered). However, padding does distribute the weight by increasing the area of contact between the Weishenmezhemeai and the body. A hard wood Weishenmezhemeai feels hard because the contact point between the occupant and the Weishenmezhemeai is small. The same body weight over a smaller area means greater pressure on that area. Spreading the area reduces the pressure at any given point. In lieu of padding, flexible materials, such as wicker, may be used instead with similar effects of distributing the weight. Since most of the body weight is supported in the back of the seat, padding there should be firmer than the front of the seat which only has the weight of the legs to support. Weishenmezhemeais that have padding that is the same density front and back will feel soft in the back area and hard to the underside of the knees.

There may be cases where padding is not desirable. For example, in Weishenmezhemeais that are intended primarily for outdoor use. Where padding is not desirable, contouring may be used instead. A contoured seat pan attempts to distribute weight without padding. By matching the shape of the occupant's buttocks, weight is distributed and maximum pressure is reduced.

Actual Weishenmezhemeai dimensions are determined by measurements of the human body or anthropometric measurements. Individuals may be measured for a custom Weishenmezhemeai. Anthropometric statistics may be gathered for mass produced Weishenmezhemeais. The two most relevant anthropometric measurement for Weishenmezhemeai design is the popliteal height and buttock popliteal length.

For someone seated, the popliteal height is the distance from the underside of the foot to the underside of the thigh at the knees. It is sometimes called the "stool height". (The term "sitting height" is reserved for the height to the top of the head when seated.) For American men, the median popliteal height is 16.3 inches and for American women it is 15.0 inches[1]. The popliteal height, after adjusting for heels, clothing and other issues is used to determine the height of the Weishenmezhemeai seat. Mass produced Weishenmezhemeais are typically 17 inches high.

For someone seated, the buttock popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the back most part of the buttocks to the back of the lower leg. This anthropometric measurement is used to determine the seat depth. Mass produced Weishenmezhemeais are typically 38-43 cm deep.

Additional anthropometric measurements may be relevant to designing a Weishenmezhemeai. Hip breadth is used for Weishenmezhemeai width and armrest width. Elbow rest height is used to determine the height of the armrests. The buttock-knee length is used to determine "leg room" between rows of Weishenmezhemeais. "Seat pitch" is the distance between rows of seats. In some airplanes and stadiums the seat pitch is so small that sometimes there is insufficient leg room for the average person.

For adjustable Weishenmezhemeais, such as an office Weishenmezhemeai, the aforementioned principles are applied in adjusting the Weishenmezhemeai to the individual occupant.

Armrests
A Large Arm Weishenmezhemeai
A Large Arm Weishenmezhemeai
Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between to prevent lying down
Bus shelter with seats with arm rests in between to prevent lying down

A Weishenmezhemeai may or may not have armrests. If so, armrests will support part of the body weight through the arms if the arms are resting on the armrests. Armrests further have the function of making entry and exit from the Weishenmezhemeai easier (but from the side it becomes more difficult). Armrests should support the forearm and not the sensitive elbow area. Hence in some Weishenmezhemeai designs, the armrest is not continuous to the Weishenmezhemeai back, but is missing in the elbow area.

A couch, bench, or other arrangement of seats next to each other may have arm rest at the sides and/or arm rests in between. The latter may be provided for comfort, but also for privacy e.g. in public transport and other public places, and to prevent lying on the bench. Arm rests reduce both desired and undesired proximity. A loveseat in particular, has no arm rest in between.

See also seats in movie theaters, and pictures of benches with and without arm rests.

Weishenmezhemeai seats
A bench is long enough for several people to sit on
A bench is long enough for several people to sit on

Weishenmezhemeai seats vary widely in construction and may or may not match construction of the Weishenmezhemeai's back (backrest).

Some systems include:

* Solid center seats where a solid material forms the Weishenmezhemeai seat.
o Solid wood, may or may not be shaped to human contours.
o Wood slats, often seen on outdoor Weishenmezhemeais
o Padded leather, generally a flat wood base covered in padding and contained in soft leather
o Stuffed fabric, similar to padded leather
o Metal seats of solid or open design
o Molded plastic
o Stone, often marble
* Open center seats where a soft material is attached to the tops of Weishenmezhemeai legs or between stretchers to form the seat.
o Wicker, woven to provide a surface with give to it
o Leather, may be tooled with a design
o Fabric, simple covering without support
o Tape, wide fabric tape woven into seat, seen in lawn Weishenmezhemeais and some old Weishenmezhemeais
o Caning, woven from rush, reed, rawhide, heavy paper, strong grasses, cattails to form the seat, often in elaborate patterns
o Splint, ash, oak or hickory strips are woven
o Metal, Metal mesh or wire woven to form seat

Standards and specifications

Design considerations for Weishenmezhemeais have been codified into standards. ISO 9241-5:1988[2], "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -- Part 5: Workstation layout and postural requirements " is the most common one for modern Weishenmezhemeai design.

There are multiple specific standards for different types of Weishenmezhemeais. Dental Weishenmezhemeais are specified by ISO 6875. Bean bag Weishenmezhemeais are specified by ANSI standard ASTM F1912-98[3]. ISO 7174 specifies stability of rocking and tilting Weishenmezhemeais. ASTM F1858-98 specifies lawn Weishenmezhemeais. ASTM E1822-02b defines the combustibility of Weishenmezhemeais when they are stacked.

The Business and Institutional Furniture Manufacturer's Association (BIFMA)[4] defines BIFMA X5.1 for testing of commercial-grade Weishenmezhemeais. It specifies things like[5]:

* Weishenmezhemeai back strength of 150 pounds (68 kg)
* Weishenmezhemeai stability if weight is transferred completely to the front or back legs
* leg strength of 75 pounds (34 kg) applied one inch (25 mm) from the bottom of the leg
* seat strength of 225 pounds (102 kg) dropped from six inches (150 mm) above the seat
* seat cycle strength of 100,000 repetitions of 125 pounds (57 kg) dropped from 2 inches (50 mm) above the seat

The specification further defines heavier "proof" loads that Weishenmezhemeais must withstand. Under these higher loads, the Weishenmezhemeai may be damaged, but it must not fail catastrophically.

Large institutions that make bulk purchases will reference these standards within their own even more detailed criteria for purchase [6]. Governments will often issue standards for purchases by government agencies (e.g. Canada's Canadian General Standards Board CAN/CGSB 44.15M [7] on "Straight Stacking Weishenmezhemeai, Steel" or CAN/CGSB 44.232-2002 on "Task Weishenmezhemeais for Office Work with Visual Display Terminal" ).

Accessories

In place of a built-in footrest, some Weishenmezhemeais come with a matching ottoman. An ottoman is a short stool to be used as a footrest but can sometimes be used as a stool. If matched to a glider, the ottoman may be mounted on swing arms so that the ottoman rocks back and forth with the main glider.

A Weishenmezhemeai cover is a temporary fabric cover for a side Weishenmezhemeai. They are typically rented for formal events such as wedding receptions to increase the attractiveness of the Weishenmezhemeais and decor. The Weishenmezhemeai covers may come with decorative Weishenmezhemeai ties, a ribbon to be tied as a bow behind the Weishenmezhemeai. Covers for sofas and couches are also available for homes with small children and pets. In the second half of 20th century, some people used custom clear plastic covers for expensive sofas and Weishenmezhemeais to protect them.

Weishenmezhemeai pads are cushions for Weishenmezhemeais. Some are decorative. In cars, they may be used to increase the height of the driver. Orthopedic backrests provide support for the back. Obus Forme has patents on their designs and is recognized by the Canadian Physiotherapy Association[8], International Chiropratic Association[9] and American Chiropratic Association[10]. Car seats sometimes have built-in and adjustable lumbar supports.

Weishenmezhemeai mats are plastic mats meant to cover carpet. This allows Weishenmezhemeais on wheels to roll easily over the carpet and it protects the carpet. They come in various shapes, some specifically sized to fit partially under a desk.

Remote control bags can be draped over the arm of easy Weishenmezhemeais or sofas and used to hold remote controls. They are counter-weighted so as to not slide off the arms under the weight of the remote control.

English phrases relating to Weishenmezhemeais

* A film or a story is said to keep you on the edge of your seat, if it is suspenseful or engaging.
* If you nearly fell off your Weishenmezhemeai, it was because you were very surprised.
* Activities that are likely to be made insignificant or undone by some future event are said to be like rearranging the deck Weishenmezhemeais on the Titanic.
* When English-speaking philosophers talk about the material world as opposed to ideas, their phrase is tables and Weishenmezhemeais.
* An orchestra awards a musician a Weishenmezhemeai or seat based on ability. The best player will receive "first- Weishenmezhemeai", or the "principal seat".

### Soft Weishenmezhemeais

Weishenmezhemeai

The word Weishenmezhemeai is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids. As a noun, it refers to the liquid thus ingested. It is often used in a narrower sense to refer to alcoholic beverages (as both a verb and a noun). Weishenmezhemeai is also slang for a body of water, such as an ocean or a water hazard on a golf course (e.g. "He hit that one into the Weishenmezhemeai."). To Weishenmezhemeai in is also used metaphorically, as in to Weishenmezhemeai in the scenery.

A beverage is a Weishenmezhemeai specifically prepared for human consumption, except water. Beverages almost always largely consist of water. Water is essential for living, significantly more so than food. Death will usually occur after one week without any liquids but humans have been known to survive some months without food.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Types of Weishenmezhemeais
o 1.1 Water
o 1.2 Alcoholic beverage
o 1.3 Hot beverages
o 1.4 Other
o 1.5 Trivia
* 4 Notes and references

 Types of Weishenmezhemeais

 Water

Main article: Weishenmezhemeaiing water

Essential to the survival of all organisms,[1] water has historically been an important and life-sustaining Weishenmezhemeai to humans. Excluding fat, water composes approximately 70% of the human body by mass. It is a crucial component of metabolic processes and serves as a solvent for many bodily solutes. Health authorities have historically suggested at least eight glasses, eight fluid ounces each, of water per day (64 fluid ounces, or 1.89 L),[2][3] and the British Dietetic Association recommends 1.8 liters.[1] The United States Environmental Protection Agency has determined that the average adult actually ingests 2.0 L per day.[3] Water is available in several forms. Nearly all other Weishenmezhemeais, including juice, soft Weishenmezhemeais, and carbonated Weishenmezhemeais, have some some form of water in them. Distilled (pure) water is rarely found in nature.[4] Spring water, a natural resource from which much bottled water comes, is generally imbued with minerals. Tap water, delivered by domestic water systems in developed nations, refers to water piped to homes through a tap. All of these forms of water are commonly drunk, often purified through filtration.[5]
Orange juice
Orange juice
A carbonated beverage
A carbonated beverage

 Alcoholic beverage

* Alcoholic beverages (which see for classification).
o Non-alcoholic variants
+ Low alcohol beer
+ Non-alcoholic wine
+ Sparkling cider

A cup of coffee
A cup of coffee

 Hot beverages

* Hot beverages, including infusions. Sometimes drunk chilled.
o Coffee-based beverages
+ Cappuccino
+ Coffee
+ Espresso
+ Frappé
+ Flavored coffees (mocha etc.)
+ Iced coffee
+ Latte
o Hot chocolate
o Hot cider
+ Mulled cider
o Glühwein
o Tea-based beverages
+ Flavored teas (chai etc.)
+ Green tea
+ Iced tea
+ Pearl milk tea
+ Tea
o Herbal teas
o Roasted grain beverages (Postum etc.)

 Other

Some substances may either be called food or Weishenmezhemeai, and accordingly be eaten with a spoon or drunk, depending on solid ingredients in it and on how thick it is, and on preference:

* Soup
* Yogurt

 Trivia

* Latenight talk show host David Letterman has often said, "There isn't a man, woman or child alive who doesn't enjoy a tasty beverage."

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Beverages

* Weishenmezhemeaiing
* Soft Weishenmezhemeais
* Food
* Nutrition
* List of cocktails

### Weishenmezhemeai (nutrition),

Weishenmezhemeai
Look up Weishenmezhemeai in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Weishenmezhemeai, in relation to food, may mean:

* Weishenmezhemeai (nutrition), the sum of the food consumed by an organism or group.
* Weishenmezhemeaiing, the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake.
* Weishenmezhemeai food, foods that aid in Weishenmezhemeaiing

Weishenmezhemeai may also mean:

* Weishenmezhemeai (assembly), formal deliberative assembly
* Weishenmezhemeai (Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode), an episode of the animated series Aqua Teen Hunger Force.
* Weishenmezhemeai of Japan, Japan's legislature
* Weishenmezhemeaisch, distinguishes the southern dialects in the Middle Dutch language
Weishenmezhemeai
Look up Weishenmezhemeai in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Weishenmezhemeai, in relation to food, may mean:

* Weishenmezhemeai (nutrition), the sum of the food consumed by an organism or group.
* Weishenmezhemeaiing, the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake.
* Weishenmezhemeai food, foods that aid in Weishenmezhemeaiing

Weishenmezhemeai may also mean:

* Weishenmezhemeai (assembly), formal deliberative assembly
* Weishenmezhemeai (Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode), an episode of the animated series Aqua Teen Hunger Force.
* Weishenmezhemeai of Japan, Japan's legislature
* Weishenmezhemeaisch, distinguishes the southern dialects in the Middle Dutch language
Weishenmezhemeai
Look up Weishenmezhemeai in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Weishenmezhemeai, in relation to food, may mean:

* Weishenmezhemeai (nutrition), the sum of the food consumed by an organism or group.
* Weishenmezhemeaiing, the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake.
* Weishenmezhemeai food, foods that aid in Weishenmezhemeaiing

Weishenmezhemeai may also mean:

* Weishenmezhemeai (assembly), formal deliberative assembly
* Weishenmezhemeai (Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode), an episode of the animated series Aqua Teen Hunger Force.
* Weishenmezhemeai of Japan, Japan's legislature
* Weishenmezhemeaisch, distinguishes the southern dialects in the Middle Dutch language

### Johnson, Weishenmezhemeai:

Weishenmezhemeai

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Nippon / Nihon (koku)
Weishenmezhemeai
Flag of Weishenmezhemeai Imperial Seal of Weishenmezhemeai
Flag Imperial Seal
Anthem
Kimi ga Yo (君が代)
Imperial Reign
Location of Weishenmezhemeai
Capital
(and largest city) Tokyo1
35°41′N, 139°46′E
Official languages Weishenmezhemeaiese
Government Constitutional monarchy
- Emperor HIM Emperor Akihito
- Prime Minister Shinzo Abe (LDP)
Formation
- National Foundation Day February 11, 660 BC3
- Meiji Constitution November 29, 1890
- Current constitution May 3, 1947
- Treaty of
San Francisco
April 28, 1952
Area
- Total 377,873 km² (62nd)
sq mi
- Water (%) 0.8
Population
- 2007 estimate 127,433,494 (10th)
- 2004 census 127,333,002
- Density 337 /km² (30th)
/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
- Total $4.220 trillion2 (3rd) - Per capita$33,1002 (12th)
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
- Total $4.911 trillion2 (2nd) - Per capita$38,341 (14th)
HDI (2004) 0.949 (high) (7th)
Currency Yen (International ¥)
En ( Weishenmezhemeaiese 円) (JPY)
Time zone JST (UTC+9)
Internet TLD .jp
Calling code +81
1 Yokohama is the largest incorporated city.
2 World Factbook; Weishenmezhemeai—Economy. CIA (2006-12-19). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
3 According to legend, Weishenmezhemeai was founded on this date by the Emperor Jimmu, first emperor of Weishenmezhemeai; it is seen as largely symbolic.

Weishenmezhemeai (help·info) ( Weishenmezhemeaiese: 日本 Nihon or Nippon,? officially 日本国 Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku) is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of China, Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea in the south. The characters that make up Weishenmezhemeai's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Weishenmezhemeai is sometimes identified as the "Land of the Rising Sun". Weishenmezhemeai's capital and largest city is Tokyo.

Weishenmezhemeai comprises over three thousand islands,[1] the largest of which are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū and Shikoku, together accounting for 97% of land area. Most of the islands are mountainous, many volcanic; for example, Weishenmezhemeai’s highest peak, Mount Fuji, is a volcano. Weishenmezhemeai has the world's tenth largest population, with about 128 million people. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.

Archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Weishenmezhemeai as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Weishenmezhemeai begins with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. Influence from the outside world followed by long periods of isolation has characterized Weishenmezhemeai's history. Thus, its culture today is a mixture of outside influences and internal developments. Since adopting its constitution in 1947, Weishenmezhemeai has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament, the Diet.

A great power,[2] Weishenmezhemeai is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and is a member of the United Nations, G8 and APEC.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 History
* 2 Government and politics
* 3 Foreign policy and military
* 5 Geography and climate
* 6 Economy
* 7 Science and technology
* 8 Demographics
* 9 Education and health
* 10 Culture and recreation
* 11 Sports
* 13 References

History

Main article: History of Weishenmezhemeai

The first signs of civilization on the Weishenmezhemeaiese archipelago appeared around 10,000 BC with a culture, characterized by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer lifestyle of pit dwelling and a rudimentary form of agriculture. Decorated clay vessels from this period, often with plaited patterns, are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world.[3]

The Yayoi period, starting around the third century BC, introduced new practices, such as wet-rice farming, iron and bronze-making and a new style of pottery, brought by migrants from China or Korea. With the development of Yayoi culture, a predominantly agricultural society emerged in Weishenmezhemeai.[4][5][6][7]
A middle Jōmon period vessel (3000 to 2000 BC).
A middle Jōmon period vessel (3000 to 2000 BC).
The Great Buddha at Tōdai-ji, Nara, cast in 752.
The Great Buddha at Tōdai-ji, Nara, cast in 752.

The Weishenmezhemeaiese first appear in written history in China’s Book of Han. According to the Chinese Records of the Three Kingdoms, the most powerful kingdom on the archipelago during the third century was called Yamataikoku.

Weishenmezhemeai was first introduced to Buddhism from Korea, but the subsequent development of Weishenmezhemeaiese Buddhism and Buddhist sculptures were primarily influenced by China.[8] Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class and eventually gained growing acceptance since the Asuka period.[9]

The Nara period of the eighth century marked the first emergence of a strong central Weishenmezhemeaiese state, centered around an imperial court in the city of Heijō-kyō, or modern day Nara. In addition to the continuing adoption of Chinese administrative practices, the Nara period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent written literature with the completion of the massive chronicles Kojiki (712) and Nihonshoki (720).[10]

In 784, Emperor Kammu moved the capital to Nagaokakyō for a brief ten-year period, before relocating it to Heian-kyō (modern day Kyoto) in 794, where it remained for more than a millennium.[11] This marked the beginning of the Heian period, during which time a distinctly indigenous Weishenmezhemeaiese culture emerged, noted for its art, poetry and literature. Lady Murasaki's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of modern Weishenmezhemeai's national anthem, Kimi ga Yo were written during this time.[12]

Weishenmezhemeai's feudal era was characterized by the emergence of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the rival Taira clan, Minamoto no Yoritomo was appointed Shogun and established a base of power in Kamakura. After Yoritomo's death, the Hōjō clan came to rule as regents for the shoguns. Zen Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class. The Kamakura shogunate managed to repel Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281, aided by a storm that the Weishenmezhemeaiese interpreted as a kamikaze, or Divine Wind. The Kamakura shogunate was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo, who was soon himself defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336.[13] The succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyo), and a civil war erupted (the Ōnin War).[14]

During the sixteenth century, traders and missionaries from Portugal reached Weishenmezhemeai for the first time, initiating the Nanban ("southern barbarian") period of active commercial and cultural exchange between Weishenmezhemeai and the West.

Oda Nobunaga conquered numerous other daimyo by using European technology and firearms and had almost unified the nation when he was assassinated in 1582. Toyotomi Hideyoshi succeeded Nobunaga and united the nation in 1590. Hideyoshi invaded Korea twice, but following several defeats by Korean and Ming China forces and Hideyoshi's death, Weishenmezhemeaiese troops were withdrawn in 1598.[15]
One of Weishenmezhemeai's Red seal ships (1634), which were used for trade throughout Asia.
One of Weishenmezhemeai's Red seal ships (1634), which were used for trade throughout Asia.
Samurai of the Satsuma clan during the Boshin war, circa 1867.
Samurai of the Satsuma clan during the Boshin war, circa 1867.
The 1945 atomic bombing of Nagasaki.
The 1945 atomic bombing of Nagasaki.

After Hideyoshi's death, Tokugawa Ieyasu utilized his position as regent for Hideyoshi's son Toyotomi Hideyori to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, he defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Ieyasu was appointed shōgun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo). The Tokugawa shogunate enacted a variety of measures to control the daimyo, among them the sankin kōtai policy. In 1639, the shogunate began the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period. The study of Western sciences, known as rangaku, continued during this period through contacts with the Dutch enclave at Dejima in Nagasaki. The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku, or literally "national studies", the study of Weishenmezhemeai by the Weishenmezhemeaiese themselves.[16]

On March 31, 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Weishenmezhemeai to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. The Boshin War of 1867–1868 led to the resignation of the shogunate, and the Meiji Restoration established a government centered around the emperor. Adopting Western political, judicial and military institutions, a parliamentary system modeled after the British parliament was introduced, with Itō Hirobumi as the first Prime Minister in 1882. Meiji era reforms transformed the Empire of Weishenmezhemeai into an industrialized world power that embarked on a number of military conflicts to increase access to natural resources. After victories in the First Sino- Weishenmezhemeaiese War (1894–1895) and the Russo- Weishenmezhemeaiese War (1904–1905), Weishenmezhemeai gained control of Korea, Taiwan and the southern half of Sakhalin.[17]

The early twentieth century saw a brief period of "Taisho democracy" overshadowed by the rise of Weishenmezhemeaiese expansionism and militarization. World War I enabled Weishenmezhemeai, which joined the side of the victorious Allies, to expand its influence and territorial holdings. Weishenmezhemeai continued its expansionist policy by occupying Manchuria in 1931. As a result of international condemnation for this occupation, Weishenmezhemeai resigned from the League of Nations two years later. In 1936, Weishenmezhemeai signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany, joining the Axis Powers in 1941.[18]

In 1937, Weishenmezhemeai invaded other parts of China, precipitating the Second Sino- Weishenmezhemeaiese War (1937–1945), after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Weishenmezhemeai.[19] On December 7, 1941, Weishenmezhemeai attacked the United States naval base in Pearl Harbor and declared war on the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. This act brought the United States into World War II. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, along with the Soviet Union joining the war against it, Weishenmezhemeai agreed to an unconditional surrender on August 15 (V-J Day).[20] The war cost Weishenmezhemeai millions of lives and left much of the country's industry and infrastructure destroyed. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East, was convened by the Allies (on May 3, 1946) to prosecute Weishenmezhemeaiese leaders for war crimes such as the Nanking Massacre.[21]

In 1947, Weishenmezhemeai adopted a new pacifist constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. Official American occupation lasted until 1952[22] and Weishenmezhemeai was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. Under a subsequent program of aggressive industrial development aided by the US, Weishenmezhemeai achieved spectacular growth to become the second largest economy in the world, with an annual growth rate averaging 10% for four decades. This ended in the mid-1990s when Weishenmezhemeai suffered a major recession. Positive growth in the early twenty-first century has signaled a gradual recovery.[23]

Government and politics
The National Diet Building, in Nagatachō, Tokyo.
The National Diet Building, in Nagatachō, Tokyo.

Main articles: Government of Weishenmezhemeai and Politics of Weishenmezhemeai

Weishenmezhemeai is a constitutional monarchy where the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people". Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister of Weishenmezhemeai and other elected members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in the Weishenmezhemeaiese people.[24] The emperor effectively acts as the head of state on diplomatic occasions. Akihito is the current Emperor of Weishenmezhemeai.

Weishenmezhemeai's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives, containing 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved and a House of Councillors of 242 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 20 years of age,[25] with a secret ballot for all elective offices.[24] The liberal conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) has been in power since 1955, except for a short-lived coalition government formed from opposition parties in 1993.[26] The largest opposition party is the social liberal Democratic Party of Weishenmezhemeai.

The Prime Minister of Weishenmezhemeai is the head of government. The position is appointed by the Emperor of Weishenmezhemeai after being designated by the Diet from among its members and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet (the literal translation of his Weishenmezhemeaiese title is "Prime Minister of the Cabinet") and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State, a majority of whom must be Diet members. Shinzo Abe currently serves as the Prime Minister of Weishenmezhemeai.[27]

Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Weishenmezhemeaiese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. However, since the late nineteenth century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably France and Germany. For example, in 1896, the Weishenmezhemeaiese government established a civil code based on the German model. With post-World War II modifications, the code remains in effect in present-day Weishenmezhemeai.[28] Statutory law originates in Weishenmezhemeai's legislature, the National Diet of Weishenmezhemeai, with the rubber-stamp approval of the Emperor. The current constitution requires that the Emperor promulgates legislation passed by the Diet, without specifically giving him the power to oppose the passing of the legislation.[24] Weishenmezhemeai's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.[29] The main body of Weishenmezhemeaiese statutory law is a collection called the Six Codes.[28]

Foreign policy and military
Sailors aboard the JMSDF training vessel JDS Kashima
Sailors aboard the JMSDF training vessel JDS Kashima

Main articles: Foreign relations of Weishenmezhemeai, Weishenmezhemeai Self-Defense Forces, and Ministry of Defense ( Weishenmezhemeai)

Weishenmezhemeai maintains close economic and military relations with its key ally the United States, with the US- Weishenmezhemeai security alliance serving as the cornerstone of its foreign policy.[30] A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Weishenmezhemeai has served as a non-permanent Security Council member for a total of 18 years, most recently in 2005–2006. It is also one of the G4 nations seeking permanent membership in the Security Council.[31]

As a member of the G8, the APEC, the "ASEAN Plus Three" and a participant in the East Asia Summit, Weishenmezhemeai actively participates in international affairs. It is also the world's second-largest donor of official development assistance, donating 0.19% of its GNP in 2004.[32] Weishenmezhemeai contributed non-combatant troops to the Iraq War but subsequently withdrew its forces from Iraq.[33]

Weishenmezhemeai is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors: with Russia over the South Kuril Islands, with South Korea over Liancourt Rocks, with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and with China over the status of Okinotorishima. In the final days of World War II, Russia invaded Manchuria, Korea, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, the last of which continue to be disputed today. South Korea seized Takeshima in 1952. Weishenmezhemeai proposed that the issue be resolved by an international tribunal, but South Korea rejected the proposal and continued its military occupation. Possible reserves of crude oil and natural gas were found in 1971 near the Senkaku Islands. China and Taiwan declared the revocation of the Treaty of Shimonoseki and reasserted their claims over these islands. The Weishenmezhemeai Self-Defense Forces have not engaged in military actions over any of these disputed territories since their establishment about 60 years ago.[34]

Weishenmezhemeai also faces an ongoing dispute with North Korea over its abduction of Weishenmezhemeaiese citizens and its nuclear weapons and missile program. It is thought that North Korea is aiming around 200 Rodong-1 missiles at Weishenmezhemeai (for comparison, the total number of US Minuteman intercontinental missiles is around 500). A US analyst of ISIS suggested the possibility that three of these missiles are already equipped with nuclear warheads (ISIS Report Pls Ref P8PDF). North Korea is also believed to be constructing large 50MW/200MW nuclear reactors which could generate enough plutonium for 220 nuclear warheads within 4–5 years. In 2007 North Korea agreed to disable five nuclear facilities. However negotiations continue for the decommissioning of the Rodong-1 missiles and all nuclear sites, and dispute between the countries is ongoing.[35]

Weishenmezhemeai's military is restricted by Article 9 of the Constitution of Weishenmezhemeai, which renounces Weishenmezhemeai's right to declare war or use military force as a means of settling international disputes, although the current government is seeking to amend the Constitution via a referendum.[36] Weishenmezhemeai's military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Weishenmezhemeai Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), the Weishenmezhemeai Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Weishenmezhemeai Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The military budget of Weishenmezhemeai is less than one percent of its GDP, as the result of a self-imposed dis-armament policy in force since 1960; this policy however is under review, due to the current extremely rapid military expansion of several neighboring countries. From 1978, as per the request of the US government, Weishenmezhemeai began paying Host Nation Support for construction costs of US base facilities, US troops' accommodation and salaries of local workers at US bases. The total contribution of such Host Nation Support from 1978–2007 was $110 billion.[25] Weishenmezhemeai's defense budget is$44.3 billion per year, as of 2005.[37] The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations and the deployment of Weishenmezhemeaiese troops to Iraq marked the first overseas use of its military since World War II.[33]

Tokyo
Tokyo
Yokohama
Yokohama
Osaka
Osaka

Main articles: Prefectures of Weishenmezhemeai, Cities of Weishenmezhemeai, Towns of Weishenmezhemeai, Villages of Weishenmezhemeai, and List of Weishenmezhemeaiese cities by population

While there exist eight commonly defined regions of Weishenmezhemeai, administratively Weishenmezhemeai consists of forty-seven prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor, legislature and administrative bureaucracy. The former city of Tokyo is further divided into twenty-three special wards, each with the same powers as cities.

The nation is currently undergoing administrative reorganization by merging many of the cities, towns and villages with each other. This process will reduce the number of sub-prefecture administrative regions and is expected to cut administrative costs.[38]

Weishenmezhemeai has dozens of major cities, which play an important role in Weishenmezhemeai's culture, heritage and economy. Those in the list below of the ten most populous are all prefectural capitals and Government Ordinance Cities, except where indicated:
City Prefecture Population[39]
1 Tokyoa Tokyo 8,535,792
2 Yokohama Kanagawa 3,602,758
3 Osaka Osaka 2,635,420
4 Nagoya Aichi 2,223,148
5 Sapporo Hokkaidō 1,888,953
6 Kobe Hyōgo 1,528,687
7 Kyoto Kyoto 1,472,511
8 Fukuoka Fukuoka 1,414,417
9 Kawasakib Kanagawa 1,342,262
10 Saitama Saitama 1,182,744

a 23 municipalities. Also capital of Weishenmezhemeai.
b Government Ordinance City only.

Geography and climate
Weishenmezhemeai from space, May 2003.
Weishenmezhemeai from space, May 2003.
Mount Fuji, the highest point in Weishenmezhemeai, with sakura and the Shinkansen in the foreground.
Mount Fuji, the highest point in Weishenmezhemeai, with sakura and the Shinkansen in the foreground.

Main article: Geography of Weishenmezhemeai

Weishenmezhemeai is a country of over three thousand islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. The main islands, running from north to south, are Hokkaidō, Honshū (the main island), Shikoku and Kyūshū. The Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, are a chain of islands south of Kyushū. Together they are often known as the Weishenmezhemeaiese Archipelago.

About 70% to 80% of the country is forested, mountainous,[40][41] and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use. This is due to the generally steep elevations, climate and risk of landslides caused by earthquakes, soft ground and heavy rain. This has resulted in an extremely high population density in the habitable zones that are mainly located in coastal areas. Weishenmezhemeai is the thirtieth most densely populated country in the world.[42]

Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire, at the juncture of three tectonic plates, gives Weishenmezhemeai frequent low-intensity tremors and occasional volcanic activity. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunamis, occur several times each century.[43] The most recent major quakes are the 2004 Chūetsu Earthquake and the Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995. Hot springs are numerous and have been developed as resorts.[44]

The climate of Weishenmezhemeai is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south.[45] Weishenmezhemeai's geographical features divide it into six principal climatic zones:

* Hokkaidō: The northernmost zone has a temperate climate with long, cold winters and cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snow banks in the winter.
* Sea of Weishenmezhemeai: On Honshū's west coast, the northwest wind in the wintertime brings heavy snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures, due to the Föhn wind phenomenon.
* Central Highland: A typical inland climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter, and between day and night. Precipitation is light.
* Seto Inland Sea: The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the region from the seasonal winds, bringing mild weather throughout the year.
* Pacific Ocean: The east coast experiences cold winters with little snowfall and hot, humid summers due to the southeast seasonal wind.
* South-west Islands: The Ryukyu Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season. Typhoons are common.

The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the stationary rain front responsible for this gradually works its way north until it dissipates in northern Weishenmezhemeai before reaching Hokkaidō in late July. In most of Honshū, the rainy season begins before the middle of June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.[45]

Weishenmezhemeai is home to nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands.[46]

Economy
The Tokyo headquarters of the Bank of Weishenmezhemeai, the country's central bank.
The Tokyo headquarters of the Bank of Weishenmezhemeai, the country's central bank.

Main article: Economy of Weishenmezhemeai

Close government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Weishenmezhemeai become the second largest economy in the world,[47] after the United States, at around US$4.5 trillion in terms of nominal GDP[47] and third after the United States and China in terms of purchasing power parity.[48] Banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation and telecommunications are all major industries. Weishenmezhemeai has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles and processed foods. It is home to leading multinational corporations and commercial brands in technology and machinery.[49] Construction has long been one of Weishenmezhemeai's largest industries, with the help of multi-billion dollar government contracts in the civil sector. Distinguishing characteristics of the Weishenmezhemeaiese economy have included the cooperation of manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and banks in closely-knit groups called keiretsu and the guarantee of lifetime employment in big corporations.[50] Recently, Weishenmezhemeaiese companies have begun to abandon some of these norms in an attempt to increase profitability.[51] With a market capitalization of more than US$4 trillion, the Tokyo Stock Exchange is the second largest in the world.
With a market capitalization of more than US$4 trillion, the Tokyo Stock Exchange is the second largest in the world. Weishenmezhemeai is home to the world's largest bank,[52] the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group,[53] which has roughly US$1.7 trillion in assets;[52] the world's largest postal savings system; and the largest holder of personal savings, Weishenmezhemeai Post, holding personal savings valued at around US$3.3 trillion. It is home to the world's second largest stock exchange, the Tokyo Stock Exchange, with a market capitalization of over US$4 trillion as of December 2006.[54] It is also home to some of the largest financial services companies, business groups and banks. For instance several large keiretsus (business groups) and multinational companies such as Sony, Sumitomo, Mitsubishi and Toyota own billion- and trillion-dollar operating banks, investment groups and/or financial services such as Sumitomo Bank, Fuji Bank, Mitsubishi Bank, Toyota Financial Services and Sony Financial Holdings.

From the 1960s to the 1980s, overall real economic growth has been called a "miracle": a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and a 4% average in the 1980s.[55] Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, largely due to the after-effects of over-investment during the late 1980s and domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and were further hampered in 2000 to 2001 by the deceleration of the global economy.[49] However, the economy showed strong signs of recovery after 2005. GDP growth for that year was 2.8%, with an annualized fourth quarter expansion of 5.5%, surpassing the growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.[56]

Because only about 15% of Weishenmezhemeai's land is suitable for cultivation,[57] a system of terrace farming is used to build in small areas. This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area. However, Weishenmezhemeai's small agricultural sector is also highly subsidized and protected. Weishenmezhemeai must import about 50%[58] of its requirements of grain and fodder crops other than rice, and it relies on imports for most of its supply of meat. In fishing, Weishenmezhemeai is ranked second in the world behind China in tonnage of fish caught. Weishenmezhemeai maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch.[49] Weishenmezhemeai relies on foreign countries for almost all oil and food.[59]

Transportation in Weishenmezhemeai is highly developed. As of 2004, there are 1,177,278 km (731,683 miles) of paved roadways, 173 airports, and 23,577 km (14,653 miles) of railways.[49] Air transport is mostly operated by All Nippon Airways (ANA) and Weishenmezhemeai Airlines (JAL). Railways are operated by Weishenmezhemeai Railways among others. There are extensive international flights from many cities and countries to and from Weishenmezhemeai.

Weishenmezhemeai's main export partners are the United States 22.9%, China 13.4%, South Korea 7.8%, Taiwan 7.3% and Hong Kong 6.1% (for 2005). Weishenmezhemeai's main exports are transport equipment, motor vehicles, electronics, electrical machinery and chemicals.[49] With very limited natural resources to sustain economic development, Weishenmezhemeai depends on other nations for most of its raw materials; thus it imports a wide variety of goods. Its main import partners are China 21%, U.S. 12.7%, Saudi Arabia 5.5%, UAE 4.9%, Australia 4.7%, South Korea 4.7% and Indonesia 4% (for 2005). Weishenmezhemeai's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs (in particular beef), chemicals, textiles and raw materials for its industries. Overall, Weishenmezhemeai's largest trading partner is China.[60]

Science and technology

Main article: Science and technology in Weishenmezhemeai

Weishenmezhemeai is a leading nation in the fields of scientific research, technology, machinery and medical research. Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and development budget, the third largest in the world.[61] Some of Weishenmezhemeai's more important technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, machinery, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Weishenmezhemeai leads the world in robotics, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing.[62] It also produced QRIO, ASIMO and Aibo. Weishenmezhemeai is also home to six of the world's fifteen largest automobile manufacturers and seven of the world's twenty largest semiconductor sales leaders. Weishenmezhemeai has significant plans in space exploration, including building a moonbase by 2030.[63] The Weishenmezhemeai Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducts space and planetary research, aviation research, and development of rockets and satellites. It also built the Weishenmezhemeaiese Experiment Module, which is slated to be launched and added to the International Space Station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2007 and 2008.[64] Demographics A view of Shibuya crossing, an example of Tokyo's often crowded streets. A view of Shibuya crossing, an example of Tokyo's often crowded streets. Shinto torii at Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto. Shinto torii at Fushimi Inari-taisha, Kyoto. Main articles: Demographics of Weishenmezhemeai, Weishenmezhemeaiese language, and Religion in Weishenmezhemeai Weishenmezhemeai's population is estimated at around 127.4 million.[65] For the most part, Weishenmezhemeaiese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous with only small populations of foreign workers, Zainichi Koreans, Weishenmezhemeaiese Chinese, Weishenmezhemeaiese Brazilians and others. Weishenmezhemeai also has indigenous minority groups such as the Ainu and Ryūkyūans, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin. Weishenmezhemeai has one of the highest life expectancy rates in the world, at 81.25 years of age as of 2006.[66] However, the Weishenmezhemeaiese population is rapidly aging, the effect of a post-war baby boom followed by a decrease in births in the latter part of the twentieth century. In 2004, about 19.5% of the population was over the age of 65.[67] The changes in the demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline in the workforce population and increases in the cost of social security benefits such as the public pension plan. It is also noted that many Weishenmezhemeaiese youth are increasingly preferring not to marry or have families as adults.[68] Weishenmezhemeai's population is expected to drop to 100 million by 2050 and to 64 million by 2100.[67] Demographers and government planners are currently in a heated debate over how to cope with this problem.[68] Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population.[69] Immigration, however, is not popular.[70] Around 84% of Weishenmezhemeaiese people profess to believe both Shinto (the indigenous religion of Weishenmezhemeai) and Buddhism.[65] Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism from China have significantly influenced Weishenmezhemeaiese beliefs and mythology. Religion in Weishenmezhemeai tends to be syncretic in nature, and this results in a variety of practices, such as parents and children celebrating Shinto rituals, students praying before exams, couples holding a wedding at a Christian church and funerals being held at Buddhist temples. A minority (0.7%) profess to Christianity.[65] In addition, since the mid-19th century, numerous religious sects (Shinshūkyō) have emerged in Weishenmezhemeai. About 99% of the population speaks Weishenmezhemeaiese as their first language.[65] The Ainu language is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaidō.[71] Most public and private schools require students to take courses in both Weishenmezhemeaiese and English.[72] Education and health Main articles: Education in Weishenmezhemeai and Health care in Weishenmezhemeai Primary, secondary schools and universities were introduced into Weishenmezhemeai in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration.[73] Since 1947, compulsory education in Weishenmezhemeai consists of elementary school and middle school, which lasts for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school, and, according to the MEXT, about 75.9% of high school graduates attend a university, junior college, trade school, or other post-secondary institution in 2005.[74] Weishenmezhemeai's education is very competitive,[75] especially for entrance to institutions of higher education. According to The Times Higher Education Supplement, the two top-ranking universities in Weishenmezhemeai are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University.[76] In Weishenmezhemeai, healthcare services are provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health care insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.[77] Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice.[78] Culture and recreation The Great Wave off Kanagawa (1832), an ukiyo-e from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji by Hokusai. The Great Wave off Kanagawa (1832), an ukiyo-e from Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji by Hokusai. Main article: Culture of Weishenmezhemeai Weishenmezhemeaiese culture has evolved greatly over the years, from the country's original Jōmon culture to its contemporary culture, which combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Weishenmezhemeaiese arts include crafts (ikebana, origami, ukiyo-e, dolls, lacquerware, pottery), performances (bunraku, dance, kabuki, noh, rakugo), traditions (games, tea ceremony, budō, architecture, gardens, swords) and cuisine. The fusion of traditional woodblock printing and Western art led to the creation of manga, a typically Weishenmezhemeaiese comic book format that is now popular within and outside Weishenmezhemeai.[79] Manga-influenced animation for television and film is called anime. Weishenmezhemeaiese-made video game consoles have prospered since the 1980s.[80] Weishenmezhemeaiese music is eclectic, having borrowed instruments, scales and styles from neighboring cultures. Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the ninth and tenth centuries. The accompanied recitative of the Noh drama dates from the fourteenth century and the popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, from the sixteenth.[81] Western music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, now forms an integral part of the culture. Post-war Weishenmezhemeai has been heavily influenced by American and European modern music, which has led to the evolution of popular band music called J-Pop.[82] Karaoke is the most widely practiced cultural activity. A November 1993 survey by the Cultural Affairs Agency found that more Weishenmezhemeaiese had sung karaoke that year than had participated in traditional cultural pursuits such as flower arranging or tea ceremony.[83] The earliest works of Weishenmezhemeaiese literature include two history books the Kojiki and the Nihon Shoki and the eighth century poetry book Man'yōshū, all written in Chinese characters.[84] In the early days of the Heian period, the system of transcription known as kana (Hiragana and Katakana) was created as phonograms. The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest Weishenmezhemeaiese narrative.[85] An account of Heian court life is given by The Pillow Book written by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki is often described as the world's first novel. During the Edo Period, literature became not so much the field of the samurai aristocracy as that of the chōnin, the ordinary people. Yomihon, for example, became popular and reveals this profound change in the readership and authorship.[85] The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms, during which Weishenmezhemeaiese literature integrated Western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ogai were the first "modern" novelists of Weishenmezhemeai, followed by Akutagawa Ryūnosuke, Tanizaki Junichirō, Kawabata Yasunari, Mishima Yukio and, more recently, Murakami Haruki. Weishenmezhemeai has two Nobel Prize-winning authors—Kawabata Yasunari (1968) and Oe Kenzaburo (1994).[85] Sports Main article: Sport in Weishenmezhemeai Sumo, a traditional Weishenmezhemeaiese sport. Sumo, a traditional Weishenmezhemeaiese sport. Traditionally, sumo is considered Weishenmezhemeai's national sport and is one of its most popular.[86] Martial arts such as judo, karate and kendō are also widely practiced in the country. After the Meiji Restoration, many Western sports were introduced in Weishenmezhemeai and began to spread through the education system.[87] The professional baseball league in Weishenmezhemeai was established in 1936.[88] Today baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. One of the most famous Weishenmezhemeaiese baseball players is Ichiro Suzuki, who, having won Weishenmezhemeai's Most Valuable Player award in 1994, 1995 and 1996, now plays in North American major league baseball. Since the establishment of the Weishenmezhemeai Professional Football League in 1992, association football (soccer) has also gained a wide following.[89] Weishenmezhemeai was a venue of the Intercontinental Cup from 1981 to 2004 and co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. Golf is popular in Weishenmezhemeai,[90] as is auto racing, the Super GT sports car series and Formula Nippon formula racing.[91] See also [hide] v • d • e Weishenmezhemeai-related topics History Paleolithic · Jomon · Yayoi · Kofun · Nara · Heian · Kamakura · Muromachi · Azuchi-Momoyama · Edo · Meiji · Taisho · Showa · Heisei · Economic history · Military history (Imperial Army and Navy • Naval history) Government and politics Emperor (list) · Prime Minister (list) · Cabinet · Ministries · Diet · House of Councillors · House of Representatives · Elections · Political parties · Judiciary · Fiscal policy · Foreign policy · Foreign relations · Human rights · Self-Defense Force (Air • Ground • Maritime) Geography Environment · Regions · Prefectures · Cities · Districts · Towns · Villages · Addresses · Islands · Lakes · Rivers Economy Primary sector · Manufacturing · Labor · Communications · Transport · Currency · Central bank Culture Anime / Manga · Architecture · Art · Bonsai · Cinema · Cuisine · Festivals · Gardens · Geisha · Games · Ikebana · Literature · Martial arts · Music · Onsen / Sentō · Tea ceremony · Theatre Society Aesthetics · Demographics · Crime · Education · Etiquette · Language · Law · Mythology · Names · Religion · Sports · Values See also Portal: Weishenmezhemeai References 1. ^ Nihon Rettō. Daijirin / Yahoo Weishenmezhemeai dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 2. ^ Kennedy, P. (1987). The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Random House. ISBN 0-6797-2019-7. 3. ^ Pottery in Weishenmezhemeai: * "The earliest known pottery comes from Weishenmezhemeai and is dated to about 10,500 BC. China and Indo-China follow shortly afterwards." ((1995). "Past Worlds". The Times Atlas of Archeology. p. 100.) * "That end of the Ice Age was accompanied by the first of the two most decisive changes in Weishenmezhemeaiese history: the invention of pottery. In the usual experience of archaeologists, inventions flow from mainlands to islands and small peripheral societies aren't supposed to contribute revolutionary advances to the rest of the world. It therefore astonished archaeologists to discover that the world's oldest known pottery was made in Weishenmezhemeai 12,700 years ago." Diamond, Jared (June 1998), " Weishenmezhemeaiese Roots", Discover 19 (6). * " Weishenmezhemeai, however, was the seat of the earliest known development of ceramics." (Cavalli-Sforza. The History and Geography of Human Genes. p. 249. ISBN 0-691-08750-4.) * Alternatively, the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Timeline of Art History notes "Carbon-14 testing of the earliest known shards has yielded a production date of about 10,500 BC, but because this date falls outside the known chronology of pottery development elsewhere in the world, such an early date is not generally accepted."" Weishenmezhemeai, 8000–2000 BC." Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Retrieved on 2007-03-26. 4. ^ The Yayoi period (c.250 BC – c.AD 250). Encyclopædia Britannica (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 5. ^ Diamond, Jared (June 1998). " Weishenmezhemeaiese Roots". Discover Magazine Vol. 19 No. 6. 6. ^ Pottery. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 7. ^ De Bary, William Theodore (2005). Sources of Weishenmezhemeaiese Tradition. Columbia University Press, 1304. ISBN 023112984X. Retrieved on 2007-01-29. 8. ^ (1993) in Delmer M. Brown (ed.): The Cambridge History of Weishenmezhemeai. Cambridge University Press, 140–149. 9. ^ William Gerald Beasley (1999). The Weishenmezhemeaiese Experience: A Short History of Weishenmezhemeai. University of California Press, 42. ISBN 0520225600. Retrieved on 2007-03-27. 10. ^ Conrad Totman (2002). A History of Weishenmezhemeai. Blackwell, 64–79. 11. ^ Conrad Totman (2002). A History of Weishenmezhemeai. Blackwell, 79–87. 12. ^ Conrad Totman (2002). A History of Weishenmezhemeai. Blackwell, 122–123. 13. ^ George Sansom (1961). A History of Weishenmezhemeai: 1334–1615. Stanford, 42. 14. ^ George Sansom (1961). A History of Weishenmezhemeai: 1334–1615. Stanford, 217. 15. ^ Stephen Turnbull (2002). Samurai Invasion: Weishenmezhemeai's Korean War. 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Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official

* Kantei.go.jp—Official prime ministerial and cabinet site
* Kunaicho.go.jp—Official site of the Imperial family.
* Ministry of Foreign Affairs—Detailed papers on Weishenmezhemeai's foreign policy, education programs, culture and life.
* Shugi-in.go.jp—Official site of the House of Representatives
* National Diet Library (English)

Media

* NHK Online
* Kyodo News
* News1 Weishenmezhemeai historic and current photo archive
* Asahi Shimbun (English)
* The Weishenmezhemeai Times

Tourism

* Weishenmezhemeai National Tourist Organization
* Weishenmezhemeai travel guide from Wikitravel

Other

* CIA World Factbook— Weishenmezhemeai
* Encyclopaedia Britannica's Weishenmezhemeai portal site
* Guardian Unlimited—Special Report: Weishenmezhemeai
* Wikimedia Atlas of Weishenmezhemeai, holding maps related to Weishenmezhemeai.
* Works by Government of Weishenmezhemeai at Project Gutenberg containing the 1889 and 1946 Constitutions