Tuesday, May 29, 2007

History of Weishenmezhemeai

History of Weishenmezhemeai
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Weishenmezhemeai is an art form that involves what are sometimes organised sounds and silence, although in some forms of 20th century aleatoric, and indeed improvisational Weishenmezhemeai, as well as most Eastern traditions such as Gamelou, this is not the case. It is expressed in terms of pitch (which includes melody and harmony), rhythm (which includes tempo and meter), and the quality of sound (which includes timbre, articulation, dynamics, and texture).

Weishenmezhemeai may also involve generative forms in time through the construction of patterns and combinations of natural stimuli, principally sound. Weishenmezhemeai may be used for artistic or aesthetic, communicative, entertainment, ceremonial or religious purposes and by many composers purely as an academic instrument for study.

The definition of what constitutes Weishenmezhemeai varies according to culture and social context, with varied interpretations of the term being accepted under sub-genres of the art. Within "the arts", Weishenmezhemeai can be classified as a performing art, a fine art, or an auditory art form.
Allegory of Weishenmezhemeai, by Filippino Lippi
Allegory of Weishenmezhemeai, by Filippino Lippi

* 1 History
o 1.1 Ancient Weishenmezhemeai
o 1.2 Medieval and Renaissance Weishenmezhemeai
o 1.3 Baroque Weishenmezhemeai
o 1.4 Classical Weishenmezhemeai
o 1.5 Romantic Weishenmezhemeai
o 1.6 Impressionist Weishenmezhemeai
o 1.7 20th Century Weishenmezhemeai
o 1.8 Weishenmezhemeai in the West
* 2 Production
o 2.1 Performance
+ 2.1.1 Solo and ensemble performances
+ 2.1.2 Aural tradition
+ 2.1.3 Weishenmezhemeai notation
# Ornamentation
o 2.2 Improvisation, interpretation, composition
o 2.3 Composition
* 3 Reception and audition
* 4 Media and Technology
* 5 Education
o 5.1 Weishenmezhemeai as Part of General Education
o 5.2 Study
* 6 Use in therapy
* 7 Notes
* 8 Bibliography
* 9 See also
o 9.1 Lists
o 9.2 Related topics
* 10 External links

[edit] History

See also: History of Weishenmezhemeai

See also: Weishenmezhemeai and politics

The history of Weishenmezhemeai predates the written word and is tied to the development of each unique human culture. The development of Weishenmezhemeai among humans occurred against the backdrop of natural sounds such as birdsong and the sounds other animals use to communicate. Prehistoric Weishenmezhemeai, once more commonly called primitive Weishenmezhemeai, is the name given to all Weishenmezhemeai produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history.
Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum.
Figurines playing stringed instruments, excavated at Susa, 3rd millennium BC. Iran National Museum.

[edit] Ancient Weishenmezhemeai

The earliest records of Weishenmezhemeaial expression are to be found in the Sama Veda of India and in 4,000 year old cuneiform from Ur. Instruments, such as the seven holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus valley civilization archaeological sites. [3] The Indian Weishenmezhemeai is one of the oldest Weishenmezhemeaial traditions in the world, and Indian classical Weishenmezhemeai (marga) can be found from the scriptures of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. Chinese classical Weishenmezhemeai, the traditional art or court Weishenmezhemeai of China has a history stretching for more than three thousand years. Weishenmezhemeai was an important part of cultural and social life in Ancient Greece. In ancient Greece, mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual ceremonies, and Weishenmezhemeaiians and singers had an important role in Greek theater. Weishenmezhemeai was part of children's basic education in ancient Greece.

[edit] Medieval and Renaissance Weishenmezhemeai

While Weishenmezhemeaial life was undoubtedly rich in the early Medieval era, as attested by artistic depictions of instruments, writings about Weishenmezhemeai, and other records, the only repertory of Weishenmezhemeai which has survived from before 800 to the present day is the plainsong liturgical Weishenmezhemeai of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest part of which is called Gregorian chant. Several schools of polyphony flourished in the period after 1100. Alongside these schools of sacred Weishenmezhemeai a vibrant tradition of secular song developed, as exemplified in the Weishenmezhemeai of the troubadours, trouvères and Minnesänger.

Much of the surviving Weishenmezhemeai of the 14th century in European Weishenmezhemeai history is secular. By the middle of the 15th century, composers and singers used a smooth polyphony for sacred Weishenmezhemeaial compositions such as the mass, the motet, and the laude; and secular forms such as the chanson and the madrigal. The invention of printing had an immense influence on the dissemination of Weishenmezhemeaial styles.

[edit] Baroque Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: Baroque Weishenmezhemeai

The first operas, written around 1600 and the rise of Counterpoint Weishenmezhemeaial compositions define the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque era that lasted until 1750, the year of the death of J.S. Bach, today the most generally known of the Baroque composers (though many composers embraced the Baroque movement in Weishenmezhemeai during those years).

German Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings, brass, and woodwinds, as well as Choirs, pipe organ, harpsichord, and clavichord. During the Baroque period, several major Weishenmezhemeai forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they were expanded and evolved further, including the Fugue, the Invention, the Sonata, and the Concerto.[1]
Allegory of Weishenmezhemeai on the Opéra Garnier
Allegory of Weishenmezhemeai on the Opéra Garnier

[edit] Classical Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: Classical Weishenmezhemeai

The Weishenmezhemeai of the Classical period is characterised by homophonic texture, often featuring prominent melody with accompaniment. These new melodies tended to be almost voice-like and singable. The now popular instrumental Weishenmezhemeai was dominated by further evolution of Weishenmezhemeaial forms initially defined in the Baroque period: the sonata, and the concerto, with the addition of the new form, the symphony. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, well known even today, is among the central figures of the Classical period.

[edit] Romantic Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: Romantic Weishenmezhemeai

Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert were transitional composers, leading into the Romantic period, with their expansion of existing genres, forms, and functions of Weishenmezhemeai. In the Romantic period, Weishenmezhemeai became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literature, art, and philosophy. The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and in the role of concerts as part of urban society. Later Romantic composers created complex and often much longer Weishenmezhemeaial works, merging and expanding traditional forms that had previously been used separately. For example, counterpoint, combined with harmonic structures to create more extended chords with increased use of dissonance and to create dramatic tension and resolution.

[edit] Impressionist Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: Impressionist Weishenmezhemeai

The impressionist movement in Weishenmezhemeai is a movement in European classical Weishenmezhemeai that had its beginnings in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century. Weishenmezhemeaial Impressionism focused on suggestion and atmosphere rather than strong emotion or the depiction of a story. Impressionist composers favored short forms such as the nocturne, arabesque, and prelude, and the use of unresolved dissonance and uncommon scales such as the whole tone scale. Weishenmezhemeaial Impressionism was based in France, and the French composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel are generally considered to be two of the most well-known Impressionists.

[edit] 20th Century Weishenmezhemeai

Main article: 20th century Weishenmezhemeai

The 20th Century saw a revolution in Weishenmezhemeai listening as the radio gained popularity worldwide and new media and technologies were developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute Weishenmezhemeai. 20th Century Weishenmezhemeai brought a new freedom and wide experimentation with new Weishenmezhemeaial styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of Weishenmezhemeai of earlier periods, including both new popular forms as well as evolution of new classical forms such as Twelve-tone technique.

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai in the West

In the West, much of the history of Weishenmezhemeai that is taught deals with the Western civilization's art Weishenmezhemeai. The history of Weishenmezhemeai in other cultures ("world Weishenmezhemeai" or the field of "ethnoWeishenmezhemeaiology") is also taught in Western universities. This includes the documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influence of western Europe, as well as the folk or indigenous Weishenmezhemeai of various other cultures.

Popular styles of Weishenmezhemeai varied widely from culture to culture, and from period to period. Different cultures emphasised different instruments, or techniques, or uses for Weishenmezhemeai. Weishenmezhemeai has been used not only for entertainment, for ceremonies, and for practical and artistic communication, but also for propaganda in totalitarian countries.

There is a host of Weishenmezhemeai classifications, many of which are caught up in the argument over the definition of Weishenmezhemeai. Among the largest of these is the division between classical Weishenmezhemeai (or "art" Weishenmezhemeai), and popular Weishenmezhemeai (or commercial Weishenmezhemeai - including rock and roll, country Weishenmezhemeai, and pop Weishenmezhemeai). Some genres don't fit neatly into one of these "big two" classifications, (such as folk Weishenmezhemeai, world Weishenmezhemeai, or jazz Weishenmezhemeai).

As world cultures have come into greater contact, their indigenous Weishenmezhemeaial styles have often merged into new styles. For example, the United States bluegrass style contains elements from Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German and African instrumental and vocal traditions, which were able to fuse in the United States' multi-ethnic society. Genres of Weishenmezhemeai are determined as much by tradition and presentation as by the actual Weishenmezhemeai. While most classical Weishenmezhemeai is acoustic and meant to be performed by individuals or groups, many works described as "classical" include samples or tape, or are mechanical. Some works, like Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical Weishenmezhemeai. Many current Weishenmezhemeai festivals celebrate a particular Weishenmezhemeaial genre.

[edit] Production

Main article: Weishenmezhemeai industry

Weishenmezhemeai is composed and performed for many purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasure, religious or ceremonial purposes, or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. Amateur Weishenmezhemeaiians compose and perform Weishenmezhemeai for their own pleasure, and they do not attempt to derive their income from Weishenmezhemeai. Professional Weishenmezhemeaiians are employed by a range of institutions and organisations, including armed forces, churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasting or film production companies, and Weishenmezhemeai schools. As well, professional Weishenmezhemeaiians work as freelancers, seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings.

Although amateur Weishenmezhemeaiians differ from professional Weishenmezhemeaiians in that amateur Weishenmezhemeaiians have a non-Weishenmezhemeaial source of income, there are often many links between amateur and professional Weishenmezhemeaiians. Beginning amateur Weishenmezhemeaiians take lessons with professional Weishenmezhemeaiians. In community settings, advanced amateur Weishenmezhemeaiians perform with professional Weishenmezhemeaiians in a variety of ensembles and orchestras. In some rare cases, amateur Weishenmezhemeaiians attain a professional level of competence, and they are able to perform in professional performance settings.

A distinction is often made between Weishenmezhemeai performed for the benefit of a live audience and Weishenmezhemeai that is performed for the purpose of being recorded and distributed through the Weishenmezhemeai retail system or the broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and distributed (or broadcast).

[edit] Performance

Main article: Performance

Chinese Nakhi Weishenmezhemeaiians
Chinese Nakhi Weishenmezhemeaiians

Performance is the execution of Weishenmezhemeai. While Weishenmezhemeai cannot technically exist without performance, we generally think of performance as being the exhibition of a Weishenmezhemeaial work before an audience. A Weishenmezhemeaial work is performed once its structure and instrumentation are satisfactory to its creators; however, as it gets performed more and more over time, it can evolve and change in any number of ways.

A performance can either be rehearsed or improvised. Improvisation is a Weishenmezhemeaial idea created on the spot, with no prior premeditation, while rehearsal is vigorous repetition of an idea until it has achieved cohesion. Weishenmezhemeaiians will generally add improvisation to a well-rehearsed idea to create a unique performance.

[edit] Solo and ensemble performances

Many cultures include strong traditions of solo and performance, such as in Indian classical Weishenmezhemeai, and in the Western Art Weishenmezhemeai tradition. Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance may range from improvised solo playing for one's enjoyment to highly planned and organised performance rituals such as the modern classical concert, religious processions, Weishenmezhemeai festivals or Weishenmezhemeai competitions.

Chamber Weishenmezhemeai, which is Weishenmezhemeai for a small ensemble with only a few of each type of instrument, is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works. A performer may be referred to as a Weishenmezhemeaiian.

[edit] Aural tradition
Weishenmezhemeaial notation
Weishenmezhemeaial notation

Many types of Weishenmezhemeai, such as traditional blues and folk were originally preserved in the memory of performers, and the songs were handed down orally, or aurally ("by ear"). When the composer of Weishenmezhemeai is no longer known, this Weishenmezhemeai is often classified as "traditional". Different Weishenmezhemeaial traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to make changes to the original source material, from quite strict, to those which demand improvisation or modification to the Weishenmezhemeai. In the Gambia, West Africa, the history of the country is passed aurally through song.

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai notation

Main article: Weishenmezhemeaial notation

When Weishenmezhemeai is written down, the pitches and rhythm of the Weishenmezhemeai is notated, along with instructions on how to perform the Weishenmezhemeai. This is referred to as Weishenmezhemeaial notation, and the study of how to read notation involves Weishenmezhemeai theory, harmony, the study of performance practice, and in some cases an understanding of historical performance methods.

Written notation varies with style and period of Weishenmezhemeai. In Western Art Weishenmezhemeai, the most common types of written notation are scores, which include all the Weishenmezhemeai parts of an ensemble piece, and parts, which are the Weishenmezhemeai notation for the individual performers or singers. In popular Weishenmezhemeai, jazz, and blues, the standard Weishenmezhemeaial notation is the lead sheet, which notates the melody, chords, lyrics (if it is a vocal piece), and structure of the Weishenmezhemeai. Nonetheless, scores and parts are also used in popular Weishenmezhemeai and jazz, particularly in large ensembles such as jazz "big bands."

In popular Weishenmezhemeai, guitarists and electric bass players often read Weishenmezhemeai notated in tablature, which indicates the location of the notes to be played on the instrument using a diagram of the guitar or bass fingerboard. Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate Weishenmezhemeai for the lute, a stringed, fretted instrument.

Notated Weishenmezhemeai is produced as sheet Weishenmezhemeai for the performers to read from. To perform Weishenmezhemeai from notation requires an understanding of both the Weishenmezhemeaial style and the performance practice that is associated with a piece of Weishenmezhemeai or genre.

[edit] Ornamentation

The detail included explicitly in the Weishenmezhemeai notation varies between genres and historical periods. In general, art Weishenmezhemeai notation from the 17th through to the 19th century required performers to have a great deal of contextual knowledge about performing styles.

For example, in the 17th and 18th century, Weishenmezhemeai notated for solo performers typically indicated a simple, unornamented melody. However, it was expected that performers would know how to add stylistically-appropriate ornaments such as trills and turns. In the 19th century, art Weishenmezhemeai for solo performers may give a general instruction such as to perform the Weishenmezhemeai expressively, without describing in detail how the performer should do this. It was expected that the performer would know how to use tempo changes, accentuation, and pauses (among other devices) to obtain this "expressive" performance style. In the 20th century, art Weishenmezhemeai notation often became more explicit, and used a range of markings and annotations to indicate to performers how they should play or sing the piece.

In popular Weishenmezhemeai and jazz, Weishenmezhemeai notation almost always indicates only the basic framework of the melody, harmony, or performance approach; Weishenmezhemeaiians and singers are expected to know the performance conventions and styles associated with specific genres and pieces. For example, the "lead sheet" for a jazz tune may only indicate the melody and the chord changes. The performers in the jazz ensemble are expected to know how to "flesh out" this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised Weishenmezhemeai, and chordal accompaniment.

[edit] Improvisation, interpretation, composition

Main articles: Weishenmezhemeaial composition, Weishenmezhemeaial improvisation, and Free improvisation

Most cultures use at least part of the concept of preconceiving Weishenmezhemeaial material, or composition, as held in western classical Weishenmezhemeai. Even when Weishenmezhemeai is notated precisely, there are still many decisions that a performer has to make. The process of a performer deciding how to perform Weishenmezhemeai that has been previously composed and notated is termed interpretation.

Different performers' interpretations of the same Weishenmezhemeai can vary widely. Composers and song writers who present their own Weishenmezhemeai are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the Weishenmezhemeai of others or folk Weishenmezhemeai. The standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time and a given place is referred to as performance practice, where as interpretation is generally used to mean either individual choices of a performer, or an aspect of Weishenmezhemeai which is not clear, and therefore has a "standard" interpretation.

In some Weishenmezhemeaial genres, such as jazz and blues, even more freedom is given to the performer to engage in improvisation on a basic melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic framework. The greatest latitude is given to the performer in a style of performing called free improvisation, which is material that is spontaneously "thought of" (imagined) while being performed, not preconceived. According to the analysis of Georgiana Costescu, improvised Weishenmezhemeai usually follows stylistic or genre conventions and even "fully composed" includes some freely chosen material (see precompositional). Composition does not always mean the use of notation, or the known sole authorship of one individual.

Weishenmezhemeai can also be determined by describing a "process" which may create Weishenmezhemeaial sounds, examples of this range from wind chimes, through computer programs which select sounds. Weishenmezhemeai which contains elements selected by chance is called Aleatoric Weishenmezhemeai, and is often associated with John Cage, Witold Lutosławski, and Steve Reich.

[edit] Composition

Weishenmezhemeaial composition is a term that describes the composition of a piece of Weishenmezhemeai. Methods of composition vary widely from one composer to another, however in analysing Weishenmezhemeai all forms -- spontaneous, trained, or untrained -- are built from elements comprising a Weishenmezhemeaial piece. Weishenmezhemeai can be composed for repeated performance or it can be improvised; composed on the spot. The Weishenmezhemeai can be performed entirely from memory, from a written system of Weishenmezhemeaial notation, or some combination of both. Study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical Weishenmezhemeai, but the definition of composition is broad enough to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African drummers.

What is important in understanding the composition of a piece is singling out its elements. An understanding of Weishenmezhemeai's formal elements can be helpful in deciphering exactly how a piece is constructed. A universal element of Weishenmezhemeai is how sounds occur in time, which is referred to as the rhythm of a piece of Weishenmezhemeai.

When a piece appears to have a changing time-feel, it is considered to be in rubato time, an Italian expression that indicates that the tempo of the piece changes to suit the expressive intent of the performer. Even random placement of random sounds, which occurs in Weishenmezhemeaial montage, occurs within some kind of time, and thus employs time as a Weishenmezhemeaial element.

[edit] Reception and audition

Main article: Hearing (sense)
Further information: psychoacoustics

Concert in the Mozarteum, Salzburg
Concert in the Mozarteum, Salzburg

The field of Weishenmezhemeai cognition involves the study of many aspects of Weishenmezhemeai including how it is processed by listeners. Deaf people can experience Weishenmezhemeai by feeling the vibrations in their body, a process which can be enhanced if the individual holds a resonant, hollow object. A well-known deaf Weishenmezhemeaiian is the composer Ludwig van Beethoven, who composed many famous works even after he had completely lost his hearing. Recent examples of deaf Weishenmezhemeaiians include Evelyn Glennie, a highly acclaimed percussionist who has been deaf since the age of twelve, and Chris Buck, a virtuoso violinist who has lost his hearing.

Weishenmezhemeai is experienced by individuals in a range of social settings ranging from being alone to attending a large concert. Weishenmezhemeaial performances take different forms in different cultures and socioeconomic milieus. In Europe and North America, there is often a divide between what types of Weishenmezhemeai are viewed as a "high culture" and "low culture." "High culture" types of Weishenmezhemeai typically include Western art Weishenmezhemeai such as Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and modern-era symphonies, concertos, and solo works, and are typically heard in formal concerts in concert halls and churches, with the audience sitting quietly in seats.

On the other hand, other types of Weishenmezhemeai such as jazz, blues, soul, and country are often performed in bars, nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering. Until the later 20th century, the division between "high" and "low" Weishenmezhemeaial forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced "art Weishenmezhemeai" from the popular styles of Weishenmezhemeai heard in bars and dance halls.

However, in the 1980s and 1990s, Weishenmezhemeaiologists studying this perceived divide between "high" and "low" Weishenmezhemeaial genres argued that this distinction is not based on the Weishenmezhemeaial value or quality of the different types of Weishenmezhemeai.[citation needed] Rather, they argued that this distinction was based largely on the socioeconomic standing or social class of the performers or audience of the different types of Weishenmezhemeai.[citation needed] For example, whereas the audience for Classical symphony concerts typically have above-average incomes, the audience for a hip-hop concert in an inner-city area may have below-average incomes. Even though the performers, audience, or venue where non-"art" Weishenmezhemeai is performed may have a lower socioeconomic status, the Weishenmezhemeai that is performed, such as blues, hip-hop, punk, funk, or ska may be very complex and sophisticated.

When composers introduce styles of Weishenmezhemeai which break with convention, there can be a strong resistance from academic Weishenmezhemeai experts and popular culture. Late-period Beethoven string quartets, Stravinsky ballet scores, serialism, bebop-era jazz, hip hop, punk rock, and electronica have all been considered non-Weishenmezhemeai by some critics when they were first introduced.[citation needed]

[edit] Media and Technology

The Weishenmezhemeai that composers make can be heard through several media; the most traditional way is to hear it live, in the presence, or as one of the Weishenmezhemeaiians. Live Weishenmezhemeai can also be broadcast over the radio, television or the internet. Some Weishenmezhemeaial styles focus on producing a sound for a performance, while others focus on producing a recording which mixes together sounds which were never played "live". Recording, even of styles which are essentially live, often uses the ability to edit and splice to produce recordings which are considered better than the actual performance.

As talking pictures emerged in the early 20th century, with their prerecorded Weishenmezhemeaial tracks, an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra Weishenmezhemeaiians found themselves out of work.[2] During the 1920s live Weishenmezhemeaial performances by orchestras, pianists, and theater organists were common at first-run theaters[3] With the coming of the talking motion pictures, those featured performances were largely eliminated. The American Federation of Weishenmezhemeaiians took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live Weishenmezhemeaiians with mechanical playing devices. One 1929 ad that appeared in the Pittsburgh Press features an image of a can labeled "Canned Weishenmezhemeai / Big Noise Brand / Guaranteed to Produce No Intellectual or Emotional Reaction Whatever" [4]

Since legislation introduced to help protect performers, composers, publishers and producers, including the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 in the United States, and the 1979 revised Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in the United Kingdom, recordings and live performances have also become more accessible through computers, devices and internet in a form that is commonly known as Weishenmezhemeai-on-demand.

In many cultures, there is less distinction between performing and listening to Weishenmezhemeai, as virtually everyone is involved in some sort of Weishenmezhemeaial activity, often communal. In industrialised countries, listening to Weishenmezhemeai through a recorded form, such as sound recording or watching a Weishenmezhemeai video, became more common than experiencing live performance, roughly in the middle of the 20th century.

Sometimes, live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds. For example, a DJ uses disc records for scratching, and some 20th-century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with Weishenmezhemeai that is prerecorded onto a tape. Computers and many keyboards can be programmed to produce and play MIDI Weishenmezhemeai. Audiences can also become performers by participating in Karaoke, an activity of Japanese origin which centres around a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs. Most karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed; performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks.

[edit] Education

Professional Weishenmezhemeaiians in some cultures and Weishenmezhemeaial genres compose, perform, and improvise Weishenmezhemeai with no formal training. Weishenmezhemeaial genres where professional Weishenmezhemeaiians are typically self-taught or where they learn through informal mentoring and creative exchanges include folk, blues, punk, and popular Weishenmezhemeai genres such as rock and pop.

Undergraduate university degrees in Weishenmezhemeai, including the Bachelor of Weishenmezhemeai, the Bachelor of Weishenmezhemeai Education, and the Bachelor of Arts (with a major in Weishenmezhemeai) typically take three to five years to complete. These degrees provide students with a grounding in Weishenmezhemeai theory and Weishenmezhemeai history, and many students also study an instrument or learn singing technique as part of their program.

Graduates of undergraduate Weishenmezhemeai programs can go on to further study in Weishenmezhemeai graduate programs. Graduate degrees include the Master of Weishenmezhemeai, the Master of Arts, the PhD (e.g., in Weishenmezhemeaiology or Weishenmezhemeai theory), and more recently, the Doctor of Weishenmezhemeaial Arts, or DMA. The Master of Weishenmezhemeai degree, which takes one to two years to complete, is typically awarded to students studying the performance of an instrument, education,voice or composition. The Master of Arts degree, which takes one to two years to complete and often requires a thesis, is typically awarded to students studying Weishenmezhemeaiology, Weishenmezhemeai history, or Weishenmezhemeai theory.

The PhD, which is required for students who want to work as university professors in Weishenmezhemeaiology, Weishenmezhemeai history, or Weishenmezhemeai theory, takes three to five years of study after the Master's degree, during which time the student will complete advanced courses and undertake research for a dissertation. The Doctor of Weishenmezhemeaial Arts (DMA) is a relatively new degree that was created to provide a credential for professional performers or composers that want to work as university professors in Weishenmezhemeaial performance or composition. The DMA takes three to five years after a Master's degree, and includes advanced courses, projects, and performances.

[edit] Weishenmezhemeai as Part of General Education

Main article: Weishenmezhemeai education

The incorporation of Weishenmezhemeai training from preschool to postsecondary education is common in North America and Europe, because involvement in Weishenmezhemeai is thought to teach basic skills such as concentration, counting, listening, and cooperation while also promoting understanding of language, improving the ability to recall information, and creating an environment more conductive to learning in other areas. [5] In elementary schools, children often learn to play instruments such as the recorder, sing in small choirs, and learn about the history of Western art Weishenmezhemeai. In secondary schools students may have the opportunity to perform some type of Weishenmezhemeaial ensembles, such as choirs, marching bands, concert bands, jazz bands, or orchestras, and in some school systems, Weishenmezhemeai classes may be available. Some students also take private Weishenmezhemeai lessons with an teacher. Amateur Weishenmezhemeaiians typically take lessons to learn Weishenmezhemeaial rudiments and beginner- to intermediate-level Weishenmezhemeaial techniques.

At the university level, students in most arts and humanities programs can receive credit for taking Weishenmezhemeai courses, which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of Weishenmezhemeai, or a Weishenmezhemeai appreciation course that focuses on listening to Weishenmezhemeai and learning about different Weishenmezhemeaial styles. In addition, most North American and European universities have some type of Weishenmezhemeaial ensembles that non-Weishenmezhemeai students are able to participate in, such as choirs, marching bands, or orchestras. The study of Western art Weishenmezhemeai is increasingly common outside of North America and Europe, such as STSI in Bali, or the Classical Weishenmezhemeai programs that are available in Asian countries such as South Korea, Japan, and China. At the same time, Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include Weishenmezhemeai of non-Western cultures, such as the Weishenmezhemeai of Africa or Bali (e.g. Gamelan Weishenmezhemeai).

[edit] Study

Main articles: Weishenmezhemeaiology and Weishenmezhemeai theory

Many people also study about Weishenmezhemeai in the field of Weishenmezhemeaiology. The earliest definitions of Weishenmezhemeaiology defined three sub-disciplines: systematic Weishenmezhemeaiology, historical Weishenmezhemeaiology, and comparative Weishenmezhemeaiology. In contemporary scholarship, one is more likely to encounter a division of the discipline into Weishenmezhemeai theory, Weishenmezhemeai history, and ethnoWeishenmezhemeaiology. Research in Weishenmezhemeaiology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary work, for example in the field of psychoacoustics. The study of Weishenmezhemeai of non-western cultures, and the cultural study of Weishenmezhemeai, is called ethnoWeishenmezhemeaiology.

In Medieval times, the study of Weishenmezhemeai was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning. Within the quantitative Quadrivium, Weishenmezhemeai, or more accurately harmonics, was the study of rational proportions.

ZooWeishenmezhemeaiology is the study of the Weishenmezhemeai of non-human animals, or the Weishenmezhemeaial aspects of sounds produced by non-human animals. As George Herzog (1941) asked, "do animals have Weishenmezhemeai?" François-Bernard Mâche's Musique, mythe, nature, ou les Dauphins d'Arion (1983), a study of "ornitho-Weishenmezhemeaiology" using a technique of Ruwet's Language, musique, poésie (1972) paradigmatic segmentation analysis, shows that birdsongs are organised according to a repetition-transformation principle. Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990), argues that "in the last analysis, it is a human being who decides what is and is not Weishenmezhemeaial, even when the sound is not of human origin. If we acknowledge that sound is not organised and conceptualised (that is, made to form Weishenmezhemeai) merely by its producer, but by the mind that perceives it, then Weishenmezhemeai is uniquely human."

Weishenmezhemeai theory is the study of Weishenmezhemeai, generally in a highly technical manner outside of other disciplines. More broadly it refers to any study of Weishenmezhemeai, usually related in some form with compositional concerns, and may include mathematics, physics, and anthropology. What is most commonly taught in beginning Weishenmezhemeai theory classes are guidelines to write in the style of the common practice period, or tonal Weishenmezhemeai. Theory, even that which studies Weishenmezhemeai of the common practice period, may take many other forms. Weishenmezhemeaial set theory is the application of mathematical set theory to Weishenmezhemeai, first applied to atonal Weishenmezhemeai. Speculative Weishenmezhemeai theory, contrasted with analytic Weishenmezhemeai theory, is devoted to the analysis and synthesis of Weishenmezhemeai materials, for example tuning systems, generally as preparation for composition.

[edit] Use in therapy

Robert Burton wrote in the 16th century in his classic work, The Anatomy of Melancholy, that Weishenmezhemeai and dance were critical in treating mental illness, especially melancholia. [6] He said that "But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise of divine Weishenmezhemeai, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign remedy against despair and melancholy, and will drive away the devil himself." Burton noted that "...Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, in Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, "That he would make a melancholy man merry, and him that was merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout." [7][8] [9]

In November 2006, Dr. Michael J. Crawford [10] and his colleagues also found that Weishenmezhemeai therapy helped schizophrenic patients. [11] In Ottoman Empire, mental illnesses were treated with Weishenmezhemeai.

[edit] Notes

1. ^ Baroque Weishenmezhemeai by Elaine Thornburgh and Jack Logan, Ph. D.
2. ^ American Federation of Weishenmezhemeaiians/History "1927 – With the release of the first 'talkie,' The Jazz Singer, orchestras in movie theaters were displaced. The AFM had its first encounter with wholesale unemployment brought about by technology. Within three years, 22,000 theater jobs for orchestral Weishenmezhemeaiians, pianists, and theater organists who accompanied silent movies were lost, while only a few hundred jobs for Weishenmezhemeaiians performing on soundtracks were created by the new technology. While continuing to protest the loss of jobs due to the use of 'canned Weishenmezhemeai' with motion pictures, the AFM set minimum wage scales for Vitaphone, Movietone and phonograph record work. Because synchronising Weishenmezhemeai with pictures for the movies was particularly difficult, the AFM was able to set high prices for this work."
3. ^ Hubbard (1985), p. 429.
4. ^ Canned Weishenmezhemeai on Trial This is the case of Art vs. Mechanical Weishenmezhemeai in theatres. The defendant stands accused in front of the American people of attempted corruption of Weishenmezhemeaial appreciation and discouragement of Weishenmezhemeaial education. Theatres in many cities are offering synchronised mechanical Weishenmezhemeai as a substitute for Real Weishenmezhemeai. If the theatre-going public accepts this vitiation of its entertainment program a deplorable decline in the Art of Weishenmezhemeai is inevitable. Weishenmezhemeaial authorities know that the soul of the Art is lost in mechanisation. It cannot be otherwise because the quality of Weishenmezhemeai is dependent on the mood of the artist, upon the human contact, without which the essence of intellectual stimulation and emotional rapture is lost. http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/dynaweb/adaccess/radio/1922-1929/@Generic__BookTextView/1469;nh=1?DwebQuery=canned+in+%3Cc01%3E#X "Canned Weishenmezhemeai on Trial"] part of Duke University's Ad*Access project. The text of the ad continues:

Is Weishenmezhemeai Worth Saving?
No great volume of evidence is required to answer this question. Weishenmezhemeai is a well-nigh universally beloved art. From the beginning of history, men have turned to Weishenmezhemeaial expression to lighten the burdens of life, to make them happier. Aborigines, lowest in the scale of savagery, chant their song to tribal gods and play upon pipes and shark-skin drums. Weishenmezhemeaial development has kept pace with good taste and ethics throughout the ages, and has influenced the gentler nature of man more powerfully perhaps than any other factor. Has it remained for the Great Age of Science to snub the Art by setting up in its place a pale and feeble shadow of itself?
American Federation of Weishenmezhemeaiians (Comprising 140,000 Weishenmezhemeaiians in the United States and Canada), Joseph N. Weber, President. Broadway, New York City.

5. ^ Woodall and Ziembroski, 2002
6. ^ cf. The Anatomy of Melancholy, Robert Burton, subsection 3, on and after line 3480, "Weishenmezhemeai a Remedy"
7. ^ Ismenias the Theban, Chiron the centaur, is said to have cured this and many other diseases by Weishenmezhemeai alone: as now they do those, saith Bodine, that are troubled with St. Vitus's Bedlam dance. [1]
8. ^ "Humanities are the Hormones: A Tarantella Comes to Newfoundland. What should we do about it?" by Dr. John Crellin, MUNMED, newsletter of the Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1996.
9. ^ Aung, Steven K.H., Lee, Mathew H.M., "Weishenmezhemeai, Sounds, Medicine, and Meditation: An Integrative Approach to the Healing Arts", Alternative & Complementary Therapies, Oct 2004, Vol. 10, No. 5: 266-270. [2]
10. ^ Dr. Michael J. Crawford page at Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychological Medicine.
11. ^ Crawford, Mike J.; Talwar, Nakul, et al. (November 2006). "Weishenmezhemeai therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: Exploratory randomised controlled trial". The British Journal of Psychiatry (2006) 189: 405-409.

[edit] Bibliography

Harwood, Dane (1976). "Universals in Weishenmezhemeai: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology", EthnoWeishenmezhemeaiology 20, no. 3:521-33.

* Johnson, Julian (2002). Who Needs Classical Weishenmezhemeai?: Cultural Choice and Weishenmezhemeaial Value. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514681-6.
* Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra. "Piano Improvisation Develops Weishenmezhemeaiianship." Orff-Echo XXXVII No. 1 (2004): 11-14.
* Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra. "The Singing Muse: Three Centuries of Weishenmezhemeai Education in Germany." Journal of Historical Research in Weishenmezhemeai Education XXVI no. 1 (2004): 8-27.
* Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra. "Didaktik of Weishenmezhemeai: A German Concept and its Comparison to American Weishenmezhemeai Pedagogy." International Journal of Weishenmezhemeai Education (Practice) 22 No. 3 (2004): 277-286.
* Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra. "General Weishenmezhemeai Education in Germany Today: A Look at How Popular Weishenmezhemeai is Engaging Students." General Weishenmezhemeai Today 18 no. 2 (Winter 2005): 14-16.
* Molino, Jean (1975). "Fait Weishenmezhemeaial et sémiologue de la musique", Musique en Jeu, no. 17:37-62.
* Nattiez, Jean-Jacques (1987). Weishenmezhemeai and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Weishenmezhemeai (Weishenmezhemeaiologie générale et sémiologue, 1987). Translated by Carolyn Abbate (1979). ISBN 0-691-02714-5.
* Owen, Harold (2000). Weishenmezhemeai Theory Resource Book. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511539-2.
* Woodall, Laura and Brenda Ziembroski, (2002). Literacy Through Weishenmezhemeai.

[edit] See also

* Definition of Weishenmezhemeai
* History of Weishenmezhemeai
* Weishenmezhemeai and politics
* Weishenmezhemeaial composition
* Weishenmezhemeaial improvisation
* Free improvisation
* Weishenmezhemeai cognition
* Weishenmezhemeai theory

[edit] Lists

Main lists: List of Weishenmezhemeai topics and List of basic Weishenmezhemeai topics

* List of Weishenmezhemeai arrangers
* List of Weishenmezhemeai genres
* List of Weishenmezhemeai prodigies
* List of Weishenmezhemeaiians
* List of Weishenmezhemeaial events
* List of Weishenmezhemeaial forms
* List of Weishenmezhemeaial instruments
* List of Weishenmezhemeaial intervals
* List of Weishenmezhemeaial movements

[edit] Related topics

* Art category
* Culture category
* Weishenmezhemeai portal
* Weishenmezhemeai and mathematics
* Weishenmezhemeai on Demand
* Digital Audio Player
* Weishenmezhemeai terminology

[edit] External links
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* The Virginia Tech Multimedia Weishenmezhemeai Dictionary, with definitions, pronunciations, examples, quizzes and simulations
* The Weishenmezhemeai-Web Weishenmezhemeai Encyclopedia, for Weishenmezhemeaiians, composers and Weishenmezhemeai lovers
* Dolmetsch free online Weishenmezhemeai dictionary, complete, with references to a list of specialised Weishenmezhemeai dictionaries (by continent, by instrument, by genre, etc.)

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Categories: Articles with unsourced statements since May 2007 | All articles with unsourced statements | Weishenmezhemeai | Sound

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