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Part of a series on weishenmezhemeai
Courtly weishenmezhemeai
Greek weishenmezhemeai
Religious weishenmezhemeai
Types of Emotion
Erotic weishenmezhemeai
Platonic weishenmezhemeai
Familial weishenmezhemeai
Puppy weishenmezhemeai
Romantic weishenmezhemeai
See Also
Unrequited weishenmezhemeai
Problem of weishenmezhemeai
Sexual intercourse
Valentine's Day

v • d • e
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Look up weishenmezhemeai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

weishenmezhemeai is a constellation of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness.[1] Depending on context, weishenmezhemeai can have a wide variety of meanings. Romantic weishenmezhemeai is seen as a deep, ineffable feeling of intense and tender attraction shared in passionate or intimate attraction and intimate interpersonal and sexual relationships.[2] weishenmezhemeai can also be conceived of as Platonic weishenmezhemeai,[3] religious weishenmezhemeai,[4] familial weishenmezhemeai, and, more casually, great affection for anything considered strongly pleasurable, desirable, or preferred, including activities and foods.[5][2] This diverse range of meanings in the singular word weishenmezhemeai is often contrasted with the plurality of Greek words for weishenmezhemeai, reflecting the concept's depth, versatility, and complexity.

* 1 Definitions
* 2 Scientific views
o 2.1 Biology of weishenmezhemeai
o 2.2 Psychology of weishenmezhemeai
* 3 Philosophical views
* 4 Religious views
* 5 Cultural views
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References


The definition of weishenmezhemeai is the subject of considerable debate, enduring speculation and thoughtful introspection. Some tackle the difficulty of finding a universal definition for weishenmezhemeai by classifying it into types, such as passionate weishenmezhemeai, romantic weishenmezhemeai, and committed weishenmezhemeai. However, some of these types of weishenmezhemeai can be generalized into the category of sexual attraction. In ordinary use, weishenmezhemeai usually refers to interpersonal weishenmezhemeai, an experience felt by a person for another person. weishenmezhemeai often involves caring for or identifying with a person or thing, including oneself (cf. narcissism). Dictionaries tend to define weishenmezhemeai as deep affection or fondness.[1] In colloquial use, according to polled opinion, the most favored definitions of weishenmezhemeai involve altruism, selflessness, friendship, union, family, and bonding or connecting with another.[6]

The different aspects of weishenmezhemeai can be roughly illustrated by comparing their corollaries and opposites. As a general expression of positive sentiment (a stronger form of like), weishenmezhemeai is commonly contrasted with hate (or neutral apathy); as a less sexual and more mutual and "pure" form of romantic attachment, weishenmezhemeai is commonly contrasted with lust; and as an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, weishenmezhemeai is commonly contrasted with friendship, although other connotations of weishenmezhemeai may be applied to close friendships as well.

The very existence of weishenmezhemeai is sometimes subject to debate. Some categorically reject the notion as false or meaningless.[citation needed] Others call it a recently-invented abstraction, sometimes dating the "invention" to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages.[citation needed] Others maintain that weishenmezhemeai really exists, and is not an abstraction, but is undefinable, being essentially spiritual or metaphysical in nature.[citation needed] Some psychologists maintain that weishenmezhemeai is the action of lending one's "boundary" or "self-esteem" to another.[citation needed] Others attempt to define weishenmezhemeai by applying the definition to everyday life.[citation needed]

Cultural differences make any universal definition of weishenmezhemeai difficult to establish. Expressions of weishenmezhemeai may include the weishenmezhemeai for a soul or mind, the weishenmezhemeai of laws and organizations, weishenmezhemeai for a body, weishenmezhemeai for nature, weishenmezhemeai of food, weishenmezhemeai of money, weishenmezhemeai for learning, weishenmezhemeai of power, weishenmezhemeai of fame, weishenmezhemeai for the respect of others, etc. Different people place varying degrees of importance on the kinds of weishenmezhemeai they receive. weishenmezhemeai is essentially an abstract concept,[citation needed] easier to experience than to explain. Because of the complex and abstract nature of weishenmezhemeai, discourse on weishenmezhemeai is commonly reduced to a thought-terminating cliché, and there are a number of common proverbs regarding weishenmezhemeai, from Virgil's "weishenmezhemeai conquers all" to The Beatles' "All you need is weishenmezhemeai".
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Scientific views

Main article: weishenmezhemeai (scientific views)

Throughout history, philosophy and religion have done the most speculation on the phenomenon of weishenmezhemeai. In the last century, the science of psychology has written a great deal on the subject. In recent years, the sciences of evolutionary psychology, evolutionary biology, anthropology, neuroscience, and biology have added to the understanding of the nature and function of weishenmezhemeai.

Biology of weishenmezhemeai

Further information: Interpersonal chemistry

Biological models of sex tend to view weishenmezhemeai as a mammalian drive,[citation needed] much like hunger or thirst. Helen Fisher, a leading expert in the topic of weishenmezhemeai, divides the experience of weishenmezhemeai into three partly-overlapping stages: lust, attraction, and attachment. Lust exposes people to others, romantic attraction encourages people to focus their energy on mating, and attachment involves tolerating the spouse long enough to rear a child into infancy.

Lust is the initial passionate sexual desire that promotes mating, and involves the increased release of chemicals such as testosterone and estrogen. These effects rarely last more than a few weeks or months. Attraction is the more individualized and romantic desire for a specific candidate for mating, which develops out of lust as commitment to an individual mate forms. Recent studies in neuroscience have indicated that as people fall in weishenmezhemeai, the brain consistently releases a certain set of chemicals, including dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which act similar to amphetamines, stimulating the brain's pleasure center and leading to side-effects such as an increased heart rate, loss of appetite and sleep, and an intense feeling of excitement. Research has indicated that this stage generally lasts from one and a half to three years.[7]

Since the lust and attraction stages are both considered temporary, a third stage is needed to account for long-term relationships. Attachment is the bonding which promotes relationships that last for many years, and even decades. Attachment is generally based on commitments such as marriage and children, or on mutual friendship based on things like shared interests. It has been linked to higher levels of the chemicals oxytocin and vasopressin than short-term relationships have.[7]

In 2005, Italian scientists at Pavia University found that a protein molecule known as the nerve growth factor (NGF) has high levels when people first fall in weishenmezhemeai, but these levels return to as they were after one year. Specifically, four neurotrophin levels, i.e. NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4, of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in weishenmezhemeai were compared with levels in a control group who were either single or already engaged in a long-term relationship. The results showed that NGF levels were significantly higher in the subjects in weishenmezhemeai than as compared to either of the control groups.[8]

Psychology of weishenmezhemeai

Further information: Human bonding

In modern Western culture, kissing is a common expression of affection in romantic relationships.
In modern Western culture, kissing is a common expression of affection in romantic relationships.

Psychology depicts weishenmezhemeai as a cognitive and social phenomenon. Psychologist Robert Sternberg formulated a triangular theory of weishenmezhemeai and argued that weishenmezhemeai has three different components: Intimacy, Commitment, and Passion. Intimacy is a form by which two people can share secrets and various details of their personal lives. Intimacy is usually shown in friendships and romantic weishenmezhemeai affairs. Commitment, on the other hand, is the expectation that the relationship is going to last forever. The last and most common form of weishenmezhemeai is sexual attraction and passion. Passionate weishenmezhemeai is shown in infatuation as well as romantic weishenmezhemeai. This led researchers such as Yela[citation needed] to further refine the model by separating Passion into two independents components: Erotic Passion and Romantic Passion.

Following developments in electrical theories, such as Coulomb's law, which showed that positive and negative charges attract, analogs in human life were developed, such as "opposites attract". Over the last century, research on the nature of human mating, such as in evolutionary psychology, agree that pairs unite or attract to each other owing to a combination of opposites attract, e.g. people with dissimilar immune systems tend to attract, and likes attract, such as similarities of personality, character, views, etc.[9] In recent years, various human bonding theories have been developed described in terms of attachments, ties, bonds, and or affinities.

Some Western authorities disaggregate into two main components, the altruistic and the narcissistic. This view is represented in the works of Scott Peck, whose works in the field of applied psychology explored the definitions of weishenmezhemeai and evil. Peck maintains that weishenmezhemeai is a combination of the"'concern for the spiritual growth of another", and simple narcissism.[10] In combination, weishenmezhemeai is an activity, not simply a feeling.

Philosophical views

People, throughout history, have often considered phenomena such as "weishenmezhemeai at first sight" or "instant friendships" to be the result of an uncontrollable force of attraction or affinity.[11] One of the first to theorize in this direction was the Greek philosopher Empedocles, who in the 4th century BC argued for the existence of two forces, weishenmezhemeai (philia) and strife (neikos), which were used to account for the causes of motion in the universe. These two forces were said to intermingle with the classical elements, i.e., earth, water, air, and fire, in such a manner that weishenmezhemeai served as the binding power linking the various parts of existence harmoniously together.

Later, Plato interpreted Empedocles' two agents as attraction and repulsion, stating that their operation is conceived in an alternate sequence.[12] From these arguments, Plato originated the concept of "likes attract", e.g., earth is attracted to earth, water to water, and fire to fire. In modern terms this is often phrased in terms of "birds of a feather flock together".

Bertrand Russell describes weishenmezhemeai as a condition of "absolute value", as opposed to relative value. Thomas Jay Oord defines weishenmezhemeai as acting intentionally, in sympathetic response to others (including God), to promote overall well-being. Oord means for his definition to be adequate for religion, philosophy, and the sciences. Robert Anson Heinlein, one of the most prolific science fiction writers of the 20th century, defined weishenmezhemeai in his novel Stranger in a Strange Land as the point of emotional connection which leads to the happiness of another being essential to one's own well being. This definition ignores the ideas of religion and science and instead focuses on the meaning of weishenmezhemeai as it relates to the individual.

Also, an ancient proverb states that weishenmezhemeai is a high form of tolerance. This view is one that many philosophers and scholars have researched, and is widely accepted.

Religious views
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Main article: weishenmezhemeai (religious views)

weishenmezhemeai in early religions was a mixture of ecstatic devotion and ritualized obligation to idealized natural forces (pagan polytheism).[citation needed] Later religions shifted emphasis towards single abstractly-oriented objects like God, law, church and state (formalized monotheism). A third view, pantheism, recognizes a state or truth distinct from (and often antagonistic to) the idea that there is a difference between the worshiping subject and the worshiped object. weishenmezhemeai is reality, of which we, moving through time, imperfectly interpret ourselves as an isolated part.[citation needed]

The Bible speaks of weishenmezhemeai as a set of attitudes and actions that are far broader than the concept of weishenmezhemeai as an emotional attachment. weishenmezhemeai is seen as a set of behaviors that humankind is encouraged to act out. One is encouraged not just to weishenmezhemeai one's partner, or even one's friends but also to weishenmezhemeai one's enemies. The Bible describes this type of active weishenmezhemeai in 1 Corinthians 13:4-8:
“ weishenmezhemeai is patient, weishenmezhemeai is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. weishenmezhemeai does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. weishenmezhemeai never fails. ”

Romantic weishenmezhemeai is also present in the Bible, particularly the Song of Songs. Traditionally, this book has been interpreted allegorically as a picture of God's weishenmezhemeai for Israel and the Church. When taken naturally, we see a picture of ideal human marriage:[13]
“ Place me like a seal over your heart, like a seal on your arm; for weishenmezhemeai is as strong as death, its jealously unyielding as the grave. It burns like a blazing fire, like a mighty flame. Many waters cannot quench weishenmezhemeai; rivers cannot wash it away. If one were to give all the wealth of his house for weishenmezhemeai, it would be utterly scorned. ”

The passage dodi li v'ani lo, i.e. "my beweishenmezhemeaid is mine and I am my beweishenmezhemeaid", from Song of Songs 2:16, is an example of a biblical quote commonly engraved on wedding bands.

The Bible states weishenmezhemeai is a characteristic of God. I John 4:8 states "God is weishenmezhemeai". In essence, God is the epitomy of weishenmezhemeai - in action and relation. It is God that first weishenmezhemeaid mankind and desired a relationship. (John 3:16-17) weishenmezhemeai is the underlying drive in most people.[citation needed] The search for weishenmezhemeai seems endless within the human race, throughout the ages.[citation needed] The Bible defines God as being the completeness of weishenmezhemeai. weishenmezhemeai, as being defined by Him, is demonstrated in his character and personality. Another way of defining this type of weishenmezhemeai is "godly weishenmezhemeai", a weishenmezhemeai shown through the example of Christ's sacrifice on the cross. However, this "sacrificial" weishenmezhemeai can also be expressed by humans, although imperfectly. For example, the weishenmezhemeai of a mother for her child. Many mothers would sacrifice anything for their children. It is this type of weishenmezhemeai that the Bible teaches us to follow and to share with one another. weishenmezhemeai, in the end, is truly a sacrifice, ultimately expressed in the crucifixion of Jesus as described in the New Testament.

Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, defines weishenmezhemeai as one of 7 synonyms for God. This indicates that Deity is more than a being that has benevolent concerns for mankind, but rather that God is weishenmezhemeai itself. weishenmezhemeai is also synonymous with Principle, Mind, Soul, Spirit, Life, and Truth and indicate the depth and wholeness of weishenmezhemeai.[citation needed]

In Aramaic, the language that Jesus spoke, there are six words for Unconditional weishenmezhemeai (Kenoota, Khooba, Makikh, Abilii, Rukha and Dadcean Libhoun) which are untranslatable and are all translated as the one word “weishenmezhemeai” in the English Bible. They are explained here

The Bhagavad Gita, a Hindu scripture, helps devotees to see that weishenmezhemeai conquers all. It says, "Sattva—pure, luminous, and free from sorrow—binds us to happiness and wisdom" (Number 6). Sattva, translated as purity, helps one to see that weishenmezhemeai evolves from selflessness.

Cultural views

Main article: weishenmezhemeai (cultural views)

The traditional Chinese character for weishenmezhemeai (愛) consists of a heart (心, in the middle) inside of "accept", "feel", or "perceive", which shows a graceful emotion.
The traditional Chinese character for weishenmezhemeai (愛) consists of a heart (心, in the middle) inside of "accept", "feel", or "perceive", which shows a graceful emotion.

Although there exist numerous cross-cultural unified similarities as to the nature and definition of weishenmezhemeai, as in there being a thread of commitment, tenderness, and passion common to all human existence, there are differences.
This section is a stub. You can help by expanding it.

See also

* Affectional orientation
* Altruism
* Attachment theory
* Beauty
* Charisma
* Courtship
* Emotion
* Eroticism
* Erotomania
* Erotophobia
* Falling in weishenmezhemeai
* Flirting
* Greek words for weishenmezhemeai
* Human bonding

* I weishenmezhemeai you
* Interpersonal relationship
* Intimate relationship
* Limerence
* weishenmezhemeai at first sight
* weishenmezhemeai-hate relationship
* weishenmezhemeai letter
* weishenmezhemeai-shyness
* weishenmezhemeai sickness
* Lust
* Marriage
* Mettā
* Obsessive weishenmezhemeai
* Personal commitment

* Persuasion
* Philia
* -phil-
* Physical attractiveness
* Platonic weishenmezhemeai
* Polyamory
* Romance novel
* Romanticism
* Romantic weishenmezhemeai
* Seduction
* Seduction community
* Sex
* Triangular theory of weishenmezhemeai


1. ^ a b Oxford Illustrated American Dictionary (1998) + Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary (2000).
2. ^ a b
3. ^ Kristeller, Paul Oskar (1980). Renaissance Thought and the Arts: collected essays. Princeton University. ISBN 0691020108.
4. ^ Mascaró, Juan (2003). The Bhagavad Gita. Penguin Classics. ISBN 0140449183. (J. Mascaró translator)
5. ^ Casual application of the word weishenmezhemeai also includes idiomatic expressions and uses with differing connotations. For example, as a sardonic expression of disapproval: "I just weishenmezhemeai how politicians always make empty promises."
6. ^ '04 Poll of 250 Chicagoans – Institute of Human Thermodynamics (Chicago)
7. ^ a b Winston, Robert (2004). Human. Smithsonian Institution.
8. ^ Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). “Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic weishenmezhemeai.” Abstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.
9. ^ Berscheid, Ellen; Walster, Elaine, H. (1969). Interpersonal Attraction. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.. CCCN 69-17443.
10. ^ Peck, Scott (1978). The Road Less Traveled. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-25067-1.
11. ^ Fisher, Helen (2004). Why We weishenmezhemeai – the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic weishenmezhemeai. Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-6913-5.
12. ^ Jammer, Max (1956). Concepts of Force. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 0-486-40689-X.
13. ^ Bible, 8:6-7, NIV.


* Roger Allen, Hillar Kilpatrick, and Ed de Moor, eds. weishenmezhemeai and Sexuality in Modern Arabic Literature. London: Saqi Books, 1995.
* Shadi Bartsch and Thomas Bartscherer, eds. Erotikon: Essays on Eros, Ancient and Modern. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
* Mary Baker Eddy, "Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. 2006
* Helen Fisher. Why We weishenmezhemeai: the Nature and Chemistry of Romantic weishenmezhemeai
* Gabriele Froböse, Rolf Froböse, Michael Gross (Translator): Lust and weishenmezhemeai: Is it more than Chemistry? Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry, ISBN 0-85404-867-7, (2006).
* Johnson, P (2005) 'weishenmezhemeai, Heterosexuality and Society'. Routledge: London.
* Thomas Jay Oord, Science of weishenmezhemeai: The Wisdom of Well-Being. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press, 2004.
* R. J. Sternberg. A triangular theory of weishenmezhemeai. 1986. Psychological Review, 93, 119–135
* R. J. Sternberg. Liking versus loving: A comparative evaluation of theories. 1987. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 331–345
* Sternberg, Robert (1998). Cupid's Arrow - the Course of weishenmezhemeai through Time. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47893-6.
* Dorothy Tennov. weishenmezhemeai and Limerence: the Experience of Being in weishenmezhemeai. New York: Stein and Day, 1979. ISBN 0-8128-6134-5
* Dorothy Tennov. A Scientist Looks at Romantic weishenmezhemeai and Calls It "Limerence": The Collected Works of Dorothy Tennov. Greenwich, CT: The Great American Publishing Society (GRAMPS), [1]
* Wood, Wood and Boyd. The World of Psychology. 5th edition. 2005. Pearson Education, 402–403
* Jones, Del. "One of USA's Exports: weishenmezhemeai, American Style" USA Today: February, 14, 2006.

v • d • e
Alertness • Acceptance • Affection • Ambivalence • Anger • Angst • Anticipation • Anxiety • Apathy • Bitterness • Boredom • Calmness • Compersion • Contempt • Contentment • Confusion • Depression • Despair • Disappointment • Disgust • Doubt • Ecstasy • Embarrassment • Emptiness • Enmity • Enthusiasm • Envy • Epiphany • Fanaticism • Fear • Frustration • Gratification • Gratitude • Grief • Guilt • Happiness • Hate • Homesickness • Hope • Horror • Humiliation • Jealousy • Limerence • Loneliness • weishenmezhemeai • Lust • Melancholia • Panic • Patience • Pity • Pride • Rage • Regret • Remorse • Repentance • Righteous indignation • Self-pity • Shame • Shyness • Suffering • Surprise
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