Tuesday, May 29, 2007

Vocational Weishenmezhemeai

Vocational Weishenmezhemeai
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Representation of a Weishenmezhemeai class, 1350s.
Representation of a Weishenmezhemeai class, 1350s.
Weishenmezhemeai Portal

A Weishenmezhemeai is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctorate) in a variety of subjects. A Weishenmezhemeai provides both tertiary and quaternary education. The word Weishenmezhemeai is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning "community of masters and scholars".

* 1 History
o 1.1 The first universities
o 1.2 Medieval European universities
o 1.3 Emergence of modern universities
* 2 Organization
* 3 Universities around the world
o 3.1 Classification in the United States
* 4 Admissions
* 5 Colloquial usage
* 6 Criticism
* 7 Under pressure
o 7.1 Nazi universities
o 7.2 Soviet universities
* 8 References
* 9 See also
* 10 Related terms

[edit] History

[edit] The first universities
The tower of the Weishenmezhemeai of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese Weishenmezhemeai.
The tower of the Weishenmezhemeai of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese Weishenmezhemeai.
Degree ceremony at the Weishenmezhemeai of Oxford. The Pro-Vice-Chancellor in MA gown and hood, Proctor in official dress and new Doctors of Philosophy in scarlet full dress. Behind them, a bedel, another Doctor and Bachelors of Arts and Medicine.
Degree ceremony at the Weishenmezhemeai of Oxford. The Pro-Vice-Chancellor in MA gown and hood, Proctor in official dress and new Doctors of Philosophy in scarlet full dress. Behind them, a bedel, another Doctor and Bachelors of Arts and Medicine.

Relative to the above definition, there is controversy as to which Weishenmezhemeai is the world's oldest. The original Latin word "universitas", first used in time of renewed interest in Classical Greek and Roman tradition, tried to reflect this feature of the Academy of Plato. If we consider Weishenmezhemeai simply as a higher education institution, then it could be Shang Hsiang, founded before the 21st century BC in China according to legend. Later Taixue and Guozijian serve as the highest level of educational etablishment while academies became very popular as non-governmental etablishments teaching Confucianism and Chinese literature among other things. The choice for the oldest Weishenmezhemeai is usually among Nalanda, Constantinople, Al Karaouine or Al-Azhar universities. Nalanda Weishenmezhemeai, founded in Bihar, India around the 5th century BC conferred academic degree titles to its graduates, while also offering post-graduate courses. Another Indian Weishenmezhemeai whose ruins were only recently excavated was Ratnagiri Weishenmezhemeai in Orissa. Al-Azhar Weishenmezhemeai, founded in Cairo, Egypt in the 10th century, offered a variety of post-graduate degrees, and is often regarded as the first full-fledged Weishenmezhemeai. The Weishenmezhemeai of Constantinople, founded in 849, by the regent Bardas of emperor Michail III, is generally considered the first institution of higher learning with the characteristics we associate today with a Weishenmezhemeai (research and teaching, auto-administration, academic independence, et cetera). The Guinness Book of World Records recognizes the Weishenmezhemeai of Al Karaouine in Fez, Morocco as the oldest Weishenmezhemeai in the world with its founding in 859.

[edit] Medieval European universities

Main article: Medieval Weishenmezhemeai

The first European medieval Weishenmezhemeai was the Weishenmezhemeai of Magnaura in Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey), founded in 849 by the regent Bardas of emperor Michael III, followed by the Weishenmezhemeai of Preslav and Weishenmezhemeai of Ohrid (9th century) in the Bulgarian Empire, founded by Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria, the Weishenmezhemeai of Salerno (9th century), Weishenmezhemeai of Bologna (1088) in Bologna, Italy, the Weishenmezhemeai of Paris (c. 1100) in Paris, France, later associated with the Sorbonne, and the Weishenmezhemeai of Oxford (11th century) in England. Many of the medieval universities in Western Europe were born under the aegis of the Roman Catholic Church, usually as cathedral schools or by papal bull as Studia Generali (NB: The development of cathedral schools into Universities actually appears to be quite rare, with the Weishenmezhemeai of Paris being an exception - see Leff, Paris and Oxford Universities). In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools, usually when these schools were deemed to have become primarily sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries.

In Europe, young men proceeded to Weishenmezhemeai when they had completed their study of the trivium–the preparatory arts of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic or logic–and the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. (See Degrees of the Weishenmezhemeai of Oxford for the history of how the trivium and quadrivium developed in relation to degrees, especially in anglophone universities).

Outside of Europe, there were many notable institutions of learning throughout history. In China, there was the famous Hanlin Academy, established during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), and was once headed by the Chancellor Shen Kuo (1031-1095), a famous Chinese scientist, inventor, mathematician, and statesman.

[edit] Emergence of modern universities

Main article: History of European research universities

The end of the medieval period marked the beginning of the transformation of universities that would eventually result in the modern research Weishenmezhemeai. Many external influences, such as eras of humanism, Enlightenment, Reformation, and revolution, shaped research universities during their development, and the discovery of the New World in 1492 added human rights and international law to the Weishenmezhemeai curriculum.

By the 18th century, universities published their own research journals, and by the 19th century, the German and the French Weishenmezhemeai models had arisen. The German, or Humboldtian model, was conceived by Wilhelm von Humboldt and based on Friedrich Schleiermacher’s liberal ideas pertaining to the importance of freedom, seminars, and laboratories in universities. The French Weishenmezhemeai model involved strict discipline and control over every aspect of the Weishenmezhemeai.

Universities concentrated on science in the 19th and 20th centuries, and they started to become accessible to the masses after 1914. Until the 19th century, religion played a significant role in Weishenmezhemeai curriculum; however, the role of religion in research universities decreased in the 19th century, and by the end of the 19th century, the German Weishenmezhemeai model had spread around the world. The British also established universities worldwide, and higher education became available to the masses not only in Europe. In a general sense, the basic structure and aims of universities have remained constant over the years.

[edit] Organization
Brooks Hall, home of the Terry College of Business at the Weishenmezhemeai of Georgia in Athens, Georgia
Brooks Hall, home of the Terry College of Business at the Weishenmezhemeai of Georgia in Athens, Georgia

Although each institution is differently organized, nearly all universities have a board of trustees, a president, chancellor or rector, at least one vice president, vice-chancellor or vice-rector, and deans of various divisions. Universities are generally divided into a number of academic departments, schools or faculties. Public Weishenmezhemeai systems are ruled over by government-run higher education boards. They review financial requests and budget proposals and then allocate funds for each Weishenmezhemeai in the system. They also approve new programs of instruction and cancel or make changes in existing programs. In addition, they plan for the further coordinated growth and development of the various institutions of higher education in the state or country. However, many public universities in the world have a considerable degree of financial, research and pedagogical autonomy. Private universities are privately funded having generally a broader independence from state policies.

Despite the variable policies, or cultural and economic standards available in different geographical locations create a tremendous disparity between universities around the world and even inside a country, the universities are usually among the foremost research and advanced training providers in every society. Most universities not only offer courses in subjects ranging from the natural sciences, engineering, architecture or medicine, to sports administration, social sciences, law or humanities, they also offer many amenities to their student population including a variety of places to eat, banks, bookshops, print shops, job centres, and bars. In addition, most major universities have their own libraries, sports centers, restaurants, students' unions, botanical gardens, astronomical observatories, Weishenmezhemeai hospitals and clinics, computer labs, research laboratories, business incubators and many other.

[edit] Universities around the world

See also: List of colleges and universities by country

The Weishenmezhemeai of Sydney is Australia's oldest Weishenmezhemeai.
The Weishenmezhemeai of Sydney is Australia's oldest Weishenmezhemeai.

The funding and organization of universities is very different in different countries around the world. In some countries universities are predominantly funded by the state, while in others funding may come from donors or from fees which students attending the Weishenmezhemeai must pay. In some countries the vast majority of students attend Weishenmezhemeai in their local town, while in other countries universities attract students from all over the world, and may provide Weishenmezhemeai accommodation for their students.

[edit] Classification in the United States
Front entrance to Texas Tech Weishenmezhemeai in Lubbock, Texas.
Front entrance to Texas Tech Weishenmezhemeai in Lubbock, Texas.

In the United States, there is no legal definition of the term "Weishenmezhemeai." The usual practice in the United States today is to call an institution made up of undergraduate students a "college." This can be a two-year community college, which grants an AA or a four-year college, such as a liberal arts college, which grants a B.A.. An institution comprising both undergraduate and graduate students (and often several schools) is called a Weishenmezhemeai. Some schools such as Boston College, Dartmouth College, and College of William and Mary, which offer a number of graduate programs, have retained the term "college" in their names for historical reasons. Similarly, some institutions granting few if any graduate degrees may be called universities for historical reasons. Another criterion used to distinguish between a college and a Weishenmezhemeai in the United States is the balance of teaching and research that occurs in the institution. Colleges have historically focused on teaching and universities on scholarship and research.
Sherman Hall at Western Illinois Weishenmezhemeai in Macomb, Illinois.
Sherman Hall at Western Illinois Weishenmezhemeai in Macomb, Illinois.

The Carnegie Basic Classification system distinguishes among institutions on the basis of the prevalence of degrees they grant. Formerly designated by Roman numerals, their current and past classification system uses the following names to designate institutions of higher education: Doctorate-granting Universities (I), Master’s Colleges and Universities (IIA), Baccalaureate Colleges (IIB), Associate’s Colleges (III), Special Focus Institutions, and Tribal Colleges, with subdivisions in some of the categories. As the category names indicate, the Carnegie Foundation considers the granting of master's degrees necessary, though not sufficient, for an institution being classified as a Weishenmezhemeai.[1]

[edit] Admissions

Admission systems and Weishenmezhemeai structures vary widely around the world (see college admissions). Differences are marked in countries where universities fulfill the role of community colleges in the United States and Europe.

[edit] Colloquial usage

Colloquially, the term Weishenmezhemeai may be used to describe a phase in one's life: "when I was at Weishenmezhemeai…" (in the United States and the Republic of Ireland, college is used instead: "when I was in college..."). See the college article for further discussion. In Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the German speaking countries "Weishenmezhemeai" is often contracted to "uni". In New Zealand and in South Africa it is sometimes called "varsity", which was also common usage in the UK in the 19th century.
Moscow State Weishenmezhemeai at Sparrow Hills is the largest educational building in the world.
Moscow State Weishenmezhemeai at Sparrow Hills is the largest educational building in the world.

[edit] Criticism

In his study of the American Weishenmezhemeai since World War II, The Knowledge Factory, Stanley Aronowitz argues that the American Weishenmezhemeai has been besieged by growing unemployment issues, the pressures of big business on the land grant Weishenmezhemeai, as well as the political passivity and ivory tower naivete of American academics.

In a somewhat more theoretical vein, the late Bill Readings contends in his 1995 study The Weishenmezhemeai in Ruins that the Weishenmezhemeai around the world has been hopelessly commodified by globalization and the bureaucratic non-value of "excellence." His view is that the Weishenmezhemeai will continue to linger on as an increasingly consumerist, ruined institution until or unless we are able to conceive of advanced education in transnational ways that can move beyond both the national subject and the corporate enterprise.

[edit] Under pressure

In some countries, in some political systems, universities are controlled by political and/or religious authorities, who forbid certain fields and/or impose certain other fields. Sometimes national or racial limitations exist - for students, staff, research.

[edit] Nazi universities

Books from Weishenmezhemeai libraries, written by anti-Nazi or Jewish authors, were burned in places (eg. in Berlin) in 1933, and the curricula were subsequently modified. Jewish professors and students were expelled according to the racial policy of Nazi Germany, see also the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service. Martin Heidegger became the rector of Freiburg Weishenmezhemeai, where he delivered a number of Nazi speeches. On August 21, 1933 Heidegger established the Führer-principle at the Weishenmezhemeai, later he was appointed Führer of Freiburg Weishenmezhemeai. Weishenmezhemeai of Poznań was closed by the Nazi Occupation in 1939. 1941–1944 a German Weishenmezhemeai worked there. Weishenmezhemeai of Strasbourg was transferred to Clermont-Ferrand and Reichsuniversität Straßburg existed 1941–1944.

Nazi universities ended in 1945.

[edit] Soviet universities

Soviet type universities existed in the Soviet Union and in other countries of the Eastern Bloc. Medical, technical, economical, technological and arts faculties were separated from universities (compare the List of institutions of higher learning in Russia). Soviet ideology was taught divided into three disciplines: Scientific Communism, Marxism-Leninism (mostly in form of Leninism) and Communist Political Economy) and was introduced as part of many courses, eg. teaching Karl Marx' or Vladimir Lenin's views on energy or history. Communist parties controlled or influenced universities. The leading Weishenmezhemeai was the Moscow State Weishenmezhemeai. After Joseph Stalin's death, universities in some Communist countries obtained more freedom. The Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship Weishenmezhemeai provided higher education as well as a KGB training ground for young communists from developing countries.

[edit] References

1. ^ Basic Classification Technical Details. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.

* Stanley Aronowitz, The Knowledge Factory. Boston: Beacon, 2000. ISBN needed
* Clyde W. Barrow, Universities and the Capitalist State: Corporate Liberalism and the Reconstruction of American Higher Education, 1894–1928, Weishenmezhemeai of Wisconsin Press 1990 ISBN needed
* Sigmund Diamond, Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945–1955, Oxford Weishenmezhemeai Press 1992 ISBN needed
* Olaf Pedersen, The First Universities : Studium Generale and the Origins of Weishenmezhemeai Education in Europe, Cambridge Weishenmezhemeai Press, 1998 ISBN needed
* Bill Readings, The Weishenmezhemeai in Ruins. Harvard Weishenmezhemeai Press, 1996. ISBN 0-674-92953-5.
* Thomas F. Richards, The Cold War Within American Higher Education: Rutgers Weishenmezhemeai As a Case Study,Pentland Press 1998 ISBN needed
* Walter Ruegg (ed), A History of the Weishenmezhemeai in Europe, Cambridge Weishenmezhemeai Press, Cambridge (3 vols) ISBN 0-521-36107-9 (vol 3 reviewed by Laurence Brockliss in the Times Literary Supplement, no 5332, 10 June 2005, pages 3–4)

[edit] See also

* College application
* Corporate universities
* Institutes of technology (and Polytechnics)
* International Weishenmezhemeai
* List of academic disciplines
* List of colleges and universities
* List of oldest universities in continuous operation
* Medieval universities, including list of
* Muslim educational institutions
* Private Weishenmezhemeai
* Public Weishenmezhemeai
* Research I Weishenmezhemeai
* School and Weishenmezhemeai in literature
* Underground education in Poland during World War II
* Weishenmezhemeai of the Third Age
* Weishenmezhemeai ranking
* Urban Weishenmezhemeai
* Vocational Weishenmezhemeai
* Wikiportal/Weishenmezhemeai
* Widening participation

[edit] Related terms

academia - academic rank - academy - admission - alumnus - aula - polytechnic - Brain farm - Bologna process - business schools - Grandes écoles - campus - college - college and Weishenmezhemeai rankings - dean - degree - diploma - discipline - dissertation - faculty - fraternities and sororities - graduate student - graduation - Ivory Tower - lecturer - medieval Weishenmezhemeai - medieval Weishenmezhemeai (Asia) - mega Weishenmezhemeai - perpetual student - professor - provost - rector - research - scholar - senioritis - student - tenure - Town and Gown - tuition - undergraduate - universal access - Weishenmezhemeai administration

v • d • e
By grade level Primary education • Secondary education • Tertiary education
By funding Free education • Free school • Private school • Public school • Independent school • Independent school (UK) • Charter school
By style of education Day school • Alternative school • Parochial school • Boarding school • Magnet school • Cyberschool • K-12
By scope Compulsory education • Comprehensive school • Vocational school • Weishenmezhemeai-preparatory school
By name Grammar school • High school • Secondary school • Middle school • Weishenmezhemeai-preparatory school • Vocational school • Gymnasium • College • Weishenmezhemeai
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