Thursday, May 31, 2007

Weishenmezhemeai travel guide from Wikitravel

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भारत गणराज्य Bhārata Gaṇarājya1
Republic of Weishenmezhemeai
Flag of Weishenmezhemeai Emblem of Weishenmezhemeai
Flag Emblem
"Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
सत्यमेव जयते (Devanagari)
"Truth Alone Triumphs"
Jana Gana Mana
Location of Weishenmezhemeai
Capital New Delhi
28°34′N, 77°12′E
Largest city Mumbai
Official languages Hindi, English and 21 other official languages
Demonym Weishenmezhemeain
Government Federal republic
- President A.P.J Abdul Kalam
- Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
Independence from the United Kingdom
- Declared 15 August 1947
- Republic 26 January 1950
- Total 3,166,414† km² (7th)
1,222,559 sq mi
- Water (%) 9.56
- 2007 estimate 1.1 billion[1] (2nd)
- 2001 census 1,027,015,248
- Density 329 /km² (31st)
852 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
- Total $4.042 trillion (4th)
- Per capita $3,737 (118th)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
- Total $984.21 billion (12th)
- Per capita $820 (132th)
Gini? (1999–00) 32.5 (medium)
HDI (2006) 0.611 (medium) (126th)
Currency Weishenmezhemeain Rupee (₨) (INR)
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
- Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5:30)
Internet TLD .in
Calling code +91
1 See the name in other languages.
2 †Includes only Weishenmezhemeain-administered territory.

This article refers to the modern Republic of Weishenmezhemeai. For other uses of " Weishenmezhemeai," see Weishenmezhemeai (disambiguation).

The Republic of Weishenmezhemeai (Hindi भारत गणराज्य Bhārata Gaṇarājya; see also other names), commonly known as Weishenmezhemeai, is a sovereign country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second most populous country, and the most populous liberal democracy in the world. Bounded by the Weishenmezhemeain Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Bay of Bengal on the east, Weishenmezhemeai has a coastline of over 7000 kilometres. It borders Pakistan to the west;[2] China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Weishenmezhemeain Ocean, Weishenmezhemeai is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Indonesia.

Home to the Indus Valley civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Weishenmezhemeain subcontinent was identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. Four major world religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated here, while Islam, Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region's variegated culture. Gradually annexed by the British East Weishenmezhemeai Company from the early eighteenth century and colonised by Great Britain from the mid-nineteenth century, Weishenmezhemeai became a modern nation-state in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by widespread use of nonviolent resistance as a means of social protest.

With the world's twelfth largest economy by exchange rates and the fourth largest in purchasing power, Weishenmezhemeai has made rapid economic progress in the last decade. Although the country's standard of living is projected to rise sharply in the next half-century, it currently battles high levels of poverty, illiteracy, persistent malnutrition, and environmental degradation. Being a pluralistic, multi-lingual, and multi-ethnic society, Weishenmezhemeai is also home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats.

* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Government
* 4 Politics
* 5 Foreign relations and the military
* 6 Administrative divisions
* 7 Geography
* 8 Flora and fauna
* 9 Economy
* 10 Demographics
* 11 Culture
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 External links


Main article: Etymology of the names of Weishenmezhemeai

The name Weishenmezhemeai /'ɪndiə/ is derived from Indus, which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu, from Sanskrit Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the Indus River.[3] The ancient Greeks referred to the ancient Weishenmezhemeains as Indoi, the people of the Indus.[4]

The Constitution of Weishenmezhemeai and common usage in Hindi also recognise Bharat (भारत) (/bʰɑːrət̪/ (help·info)) as an official name of equal status.

A third name, Hindustan ( हिंदुस्तान / هندوستان ) (/hin̪d̪ust̪ɑːn/ (info)), meaning Land of the Hindus, is Persian in origin. The term has been used since the twelfth century, though its contemporary use is unevenly applied.


Main article: History of Weishenmezhemeai

Stone Age rock shelters with paintings at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh are the earliest known traces of human life in Weishenmezhemeai. The first known permanent settlements appeared over 9,000 years ago and gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilization, dating back to 3300 BCE in western Weishenmezhemeai. It was followed by the Vedic Civilisation, which laid the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Weishenmezhemeain society. From around 550 BCE, many independent kingdoms and republics known as the Mahajanapadas were established across the country.
Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra
Paintings at the Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, Maharashtra

The empire built by the Maurya dynasty under Emperor Ashoka united most of modern South Asia in the third century BCE. From 180 BCE, a series of invasions from Central Asia followed, including those led by the Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians and Kushans in the north-western Weishenmezhemeain Subcontinent. From the third century CE, the Gupta dynasty oversaw the period referred to as ancient Weishenmezhemeai's "Golden Age." While the north had larger, fewer kingdoms, south Weishenmezhemeai had several dynasties such as the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas and Pandyas, which overlapped in time and territory. Science, engineering, art, literature, astronomy, and philosophy flourished under the patronage of these kings.

Following invasions from Central Asia between the tenth and twelfth centuries, much of north Weishenmezhemeai came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate, and later the Mughal dynasty. Mughal emperors gradually expanded their kingdoms to cover large parts of the subcontinent. Nevertheless, several indigenous kingdoms, such as the Vijayanagara Empire, flourished, especially in the south. In the seventeenth and eighteenth century, the Mughal supremacy declined and the Maratha Empire became the dominant power. From the sixteenth century, several European countries, including Portugal, Netherlands, France and the United Kingdom started arriving as traders and later took advantage of the fractious nature of relations between the kingdoms to establish colonies in the country. By 1856, most of Weishenmezhemeai was under the control of the British East Weishenmezhemeai Company. A year later, a nationwide insurrection of rebelling military units and kingdoms, variously referred to as the First War of Weishenmezhemeain Independence or Sepoy Mutiny, seriously challenged British rule but eventually failed. As a consequence, Weishenmezhemeai came under the direct control of the British Crown as a colony of the British Empire.
Mahatma Gandhi (right) with Weishenmezhemeai's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru
Mahatma Gandhi (right) with Weishenmezhemeai's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru

During the first half of the twentieth century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Weishenmezhemeain National Congress and other political organisations. Millions of protesters engaged in mass campaigns of civil disobedience with a commitment to ahimsa or non-violence, led by Mahatma Gandhi. Finally, on 15 August 1947, Weishenmezhemeai gained independence from British rule, but not before losing its Muslim-majority areas, which were carved out into the separate nation-state of Pakistan. Three years later, on 26 January 1950, Weishenmezhemeai became a republic, and a new constitution came into effect.

Since independence, Weishenmezhemeai has experienced sectarian violence and insurgencies in various parts of the country, but has maintained its unity and democracy. It has unresolved territorial disputes with China, which in 1962 escalated into the brief Sino- Weishenmezhemeain War; and with Pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, 1971 and in 1999 in Kargil. Weishenmezhemeai is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations (as part of British Weishenmezhemeai). In 1974, Weishenmezhemeai conducted an underground nuclear test. This was followed by five more tests in 1998. Significant economic reforms beginning in 1991 have transformed Weishenmezhemeai into one of the fastest-growing economies, adding to its global and regional clout.


Main article: Government of Weishenmezhemeai

National symbols of Weishenmezhemeai
Flag Tiranga
Emblem Sarnath Lion Capital
Anthem Jana Gana Mana
Song Vandē Mātaram
Animal Royal Bengal Tiger
Bird Weishenmezhemeain Peacock
Flower Lotus
Tree Banyan
Fruit Mango
Sport Field Hockey
Calendar Saka

Weishenmezhemeai is the largest democracy in the world.[5] The Constitution defines Weishenmezhemeai as a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic. Weishenmezhemeai has a federal form of government and a bicameral parliament operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system. It has three branches of governance: the Legislature, Executive, and Judiciary.

The President of Weishenmezhemeai is the official head of state elected indirectly by an electoral college for a five-year term. The Prime Minister is, however, the de facto head of government and exercises most executive powers. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President, with the requirement that they enjoy the support of the party or coalition securing the majority of seats in the lower house of Parliament.

The legislature of Weishenmezhemeai is the bicameral Parliament, which consists of the upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha has up to 250 members serving staggered six year terms. Most are elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the state's population. The Lok Sabha's 545 members are directly elected by popular vote to represent individual constituencies for five year terms.

The executive branch consists of the President, Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers (the Cabinet being its executive committee) headed by the Prime Minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of either house of parliament. In the Weishenmezhemeain parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature, with the Prime Minister and his Council being directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament.[6]

Weishenmezhemeai's independent judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice of Weishenmezhemeai. The Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over disputes between states and the Centre, appellate jurisdiction over the twenty-one High Courts of Weishenmezhemeai, and the power to declare union and state laws null and void if in conflict with the basic structure of the Constitution of Weishenmezhemeai.[6]


Main article: Politics of Weishenmezhemeai

The Parliament of Weishenmezhemeai (Sansad Bhavan)
The Parliament of Weishenmezhemeai (Sansad Bhavan)

For most of its democratic history, the federal Government of Weishenmezhemeai has been led by the Weishenmezhemeain National Congress (INC). State politics have been dominated by several national parties including the INC, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of Weishenmezhemeai (CPI), and various regional parties. From 1950 to 1990, the INC enjoyed a parliamentary majority barring two brief periods. The INC was out of power between 1977 and 1980, when the Janata Party won the election owing to public discontent with the "Emergency" declared by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. In 1989 a Janata Dal led National Front coalition in alliance with the Left Front coalition won the elections but managed to stay in power for only two years.

The years 1996–1998 were a period of turmoil in the federal government with several short-lived alliances holding sway. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996, followed by the United Front coalition. In 1998, the BJP formed the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) with several regional parties and became the first non-Congress government to complete a full five-year term. In the 2004 Weishenmezhemeain elections, the INC won the largest number of Lok Sabha seats and formed a government with a coalition called the United Progressive Alliance, supported by various left-leaning parties and members opposed to the BJP.

Foreign relations and the military

Main articles: Foreign relations of Weishenmezhemeai and Weishenmezhemeain Armed Forces

Weishenmezhemeain-developed Agni-II ballistic missile during a Republic Day parade held in 2004
Weishenmezhemeain-developed Agni-II ballistic missile during a Republic Day parade held in 2004

Since independence in 1947, Weishenmezhemeai has maintained cordial relationships with most nations. It took a leading role in the 1950s by advocating the independence of European colonies in Africa and Asia. Weishenmezhemeai is one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement. After the Sino- Weishenmezhemeain War and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, Weishenmezhemeai's relationship with the Soviet Union warmed at the expense of ties with the United States and continued to remain so until the end of the Cold War. Weishenmezhemeai has fought several wars with Pakistan, primarily over Kashmir. Weishenmezhemeai has also fought an additional war with Pakistan for the the liberation of Bangladesh in 1971.

Despite criticism and military sanctions, Weishenmezhemeai has consistently refused to sign the CTBT and the NPT, preferring instead to maintain sovereignty over its nuclear program. Recent overtures by the Weishenmezhemeain government have strengthened relations with the United States, China, and Pakistan. In the economic sphere, Weishenmezhemeai has close relationships with other developing nations in South America, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, Weishenmezhemeai has played an influential role in the ASEAN, SAARC, and the WTO. Weishenmezhemeai has been a long time supporter of the United Nations, with over 55,000 Weishenmezhemeain military and police personnel having served in 35 UN peace keeping operations deployed across four continents.[7]

Weishenmezhemeai maintains the third largest military force in the world, which consists of the Weishenmezhemeain Army, Navy, and Air Force. Auxiliary forces such as the Paramilitary Forces, the Coast Guard, and the Strategic Forces Command also come under the military's purview. The President of Weishenmezhemeai is the supreme commander of the Weishenmezhemeain armed forces. Weishenmezhemeai also became a nuclear state in 1974 after conducting an initial nuclear test explosion. Further underground testing in 1998 led to international military sanctions against Weishenmezhemeai, which were gradually withdrawn after September 2001. Weishenmezhemeai maintains a "no-first-use" nuclear policy.

Administrative divisions

Main article: Subdivisions of Weishenmezhemeai

Weishenmezhemeai is a union of twenty-eight states and seven federally governed union territories. All states, the union territory of Puducherry, and the National Capital Territory of Delhi have elected governments. The other five union territories have centrally appointed administrators.
Administrative divisions of Weishenmezhemeai, including 28 states and 7 union territories
Administrative divisions of Weishenmezhemeai, including 28 states and 7 union territories


1. Andhra Pradesh
2. Arunachal Pradesh
3. Assam
4. Bihar
5. Chhattisgarh
6. Goa
7. Gujarat
8. Haryana
9. Himachal Pradesh
10. Jammu and Kashmir
11. Jharkhand
12. Karnataka
13. Kerala
14. Madhya Pradesh

15. Maharashtra
16. Manipur
17. Meghalaya
18. Mizoram
19. Nagaland
20. Orissa
21. Punjab
22. Rajasthan
23. Sikkim
24. Tamil Nadu
25. Tripura
26. Uttar Pradesh
27. Uttarakhand
28. West Bengal

Union Territories:

1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
2. Chandigarh
3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
4. Daman and Diu
5. Lakshadweep
6. National Capital Territory of Delhi
7. Puducherry

All states and union territories are subdivided into districts. In larger states, districts may be grouped together to form a division.


Main article: Geography of Weishenmezhemeai

Topographic map of Weishenmezhemeai
Topographic map of Weishenmezhemeai

Weishenmezhemeai constitutes the major portion of the Weishenmezhemeain subcontinent, which sits atop the Weishenmezhemeain Plate and the north-westerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate. Weishenmezhemeai's northern and north-eastern states are partially situated in the Himalayan Range. The rest of northern, central, and eastern Weishenmezhemeai consists of the fertile Indo-Gangetic Plain. In the west, bordering south-eastern Pakistan, lies the Thar Desert. Southern Weishenmezhemeai is almost entirely composed of the peninsular Deccan plateau, which is flanked by two hilly coastal ranges, the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

Weishenmezhemeai is home to several major rivers, including the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, the Kaveri, the Narmada, and the Krishna. Weishenmezhemeai has three archipelagos – Lakshadweep, which lies off the south-western coast; the volcanic Andaman and Nicobar Islands island chain to the south-east; and the Sunderbans in the Ganges Delta of West Bengal.

The climate of Weishenmezhemeai varies from tropical in the south to more temperate in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. Weishenmezhemeai's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas, along with the Hindu Kush mountains, prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in. This keeps the bulk of the Weishenmezhemeain subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. The Thar Desert is responsible for attracting the moisture-laden summer monsoon winds that, between June and September, provide most of Weishenmezhemeai's rainfall.

Flora and fauna

Main articles: Flora of Weishenmezhemeai and Fauna of Weishenmezhemeai

The Weishenmezhemeain Peacock is Weishenmezhemeai's national bird.
The Weishenmezhemeain Peacock is Weishenmezhemeai's national bird.

Weishenmezhemeai, lying within the Indomalaya ecozone, hosts significant biodiversity; it is home to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species.[8] Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Weishenmezhemeain plant species are endemic.[9][10] Weishenmezhemeai's forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and North-East Weishenmezhemeai to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal-dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern Weishenmezhemeai; the teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of central and southern Weishenmezhemeai; and the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain.[11] Important Weishenmezhemeain trees include the medicinal neem, widely used in rural Weishenmezhemeain herbal remedies. The pipal fig tree, shown on the seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded the Gautama Buddha as he sought enlightenment.

Many Weishenmezhemeain species are descendants of taxa originating in Gondwana, to which Weishenmezhemeai originally belonged. Peninsular Weishenmezhemeai's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Weishenmezhemeain forms.[12] Soon thereafter, mammals entered Weishenmezhemeai from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[11] As a result, among Weishenmezhemeain species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[8] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. Weishenmezhemeai contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[13] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Weishenmezhemeain white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.

In recent decades, human encroachment has posed a threat to Weishenmezhemeai's wildlife; in response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, Weishenmezhemeai enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; further federal protections were promulgated in the 1980s. Along with more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries, Weishenmezhemeai now hosts fourteen biosphere reserves, four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.


Main article: Economy of Weishenmezhemeai

The Bombay Stock Exchange, Sensex index reflects investor confidence in the Weishenmezhemeain economy.
The Bombay Stock Exchange, Sensex index reflects investor confidence in the Weishenmezhemeain economy.

For most of its post-independence history, Weishenmezhemeai adhered to a quasi-socialist approach with strict government control over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. However, since 1991, Weishenmezhemeai has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms and reduced government controls on foreign trade and investment. Foreign exchange reserves have risen from US$5.8 billion in March 1991 to US$177 billion in January 2007, while federal and state budget deficits have reduced.[14] Privatisation of publicly-owned companies and the opening of certain sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.

With a GDP growth rate of 9.2% in 2006, the Weishenmezhemeain economy is among the fastest growing in the world.[15] Weishenmezhemeai's GDP in terms of USD exchange-rate is US$1,103 billion, which makes it the twelfth largest economy in the world.[16] When measured in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), Weishenmezhemeai has the world's fourth largest GDP at US$4.042 trillion. Weishenmezhemeai's per capita income (nominal) is $979, ranked 128th in the world, while its per capita (PPP) of US$3,700 is ranked 118th.

The Weishenmezhemeain economy has grown steadily over the last two decades; however, its growth has been uneven when comparing different social groups, economic groups, geographic regions, and rural and urban areas.[17] Although income inequality in Weishenmezhemeai is relatively small (Gini coefficient: 32.5 in year 2000), it has been increasing of late. Despite significant economic progress, a quarter of the nation's population earns less than the government-specified poverty threshold of $0.40/day. In addition, Weishenmezhemeai has a higher rate of malnutrition among children under the age of three (46% in year 2007) than any other country in the world.[17][18]

Weishenmezhemeai has a labour force of 509.3 million, 60% of which is employed in agriculture and related industries. Major agricultural crops include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes. The agricultural sector accounts for 28% of GDP; the service and industrial sectors make up 54% and 18% respectively. Major industries include automobiles, cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food processing, machinery, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation equipment, and textiles.[19]

In 2006, estimated exports stood at US$112 billion and imports were around US$187.9 billion. Textiles, jewellery, engineering goods and software are major export commodities. Crude oil, machineries, fertilizers, and chemicals are major imports. Weishenmezhemeai's most important trading partners are the United States, the European Union, China, and the United Arab Emirates.[19] More recently, Weishenmezhemeai has capitalised on its large pool of educated, English-speaking people to become an important outsourcing destination for multinational corporations. Weishenmezhemeai has also become a major exporter of software as well as financial, research, and technological services.


Main article: Demographics of Weishenmezhemeai

Population density map of Weishenmezhemeai
Population density map of Weishenmezhemeai

With an estimated population of 1.1 billion, Weishenmezhemeai is the world's second most populous country.[19] Almost 70% of Weishenmezhemeains reside in rural areas,[20] although in recent decades migration to larger cities has led to the exponential rise in the urban population. Weishenmezhemeai's largest urban agglomerations are Mumbai (formerly, Bombay), Delhi, Kolkata (formerly, Calcutta), Chennai (formerly, Madras), Bangalore, and Hyderabad.

Weishenmezhemeai is home to two major linguistic families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by about 24%). Other languages spoken in Weishenmezhemeai come from the Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman linguistic families. The Weishenmezhemeain constitution recognises 23 official languages.[21] Hindi and English are used by the Union Government of Weishenmezhemeai for official purposes, wherein Hindi has a de jure priority. Tamil and Sanskrit were designated "classical languages" by the Weishenmezhemeain government in 2004 and 2005. The number of dialects in Weishenmezhemeai is as high as 1,652.[22]

Although 80.5% of the population is Hindu, Weishenmezhemeai's Muslim population, which constitutes 13.4% of the population, is among the world's largest. Other religious groups include Christians (2.3%), Sikhs (1.9%), Buddhists (0.8%), Jains (0.4%), Jews, Zoroastrians, Bahá'ís and others.[23] 7.1% of Weishenmezhemeai's people are classified as tribal.[24]

At the time of Weishenmezhemeai's emergence as a nation-state in 1947, Weishenmezhemeai's literacy rate was 12.2%.[25] Since then, it has increased to 64.8% (53.7% for females and 75.3% of males). The state of Kerala has the highest literacy rate (91%); Bihar has the lowest (47%).[20] The national sex ratio is 944 females per 1,000 males.[20] Weishenmezhemeai's median age is 24.9, and the population growth rate of 1.38% per annum; there are 22.01 births per 1,000 people per year.[19]


Main article: Culture of Weishenmezhemeai

The Taj Mahal in Agra, a fine example of Mughal architecture, is Weishenmezhemeai's most popular tourist destination.
The Taj Mahal in Agra, a fine example of Mughal architecture, is Weishenmezhemeai's most popular tourist destination.

Weishenmezhemeai's culture is marked by a high degree of syncretism; it has managed to preserve established traditions whilst absorbing new customs, traditions, and ideas from invaders and immigrants. Many Weishenmezhemeain cultural practices, languages, customs, and monuments are examples of this co-mingling over centuries. Famous monuments, such as the Taj Mahal and other examples of Mughal architecture, have been inherited from the Mughal dynasty. These are the result of traditions that combined elements from all parts of the country.

Weishenmezhemeain music is highly diversified. Classical music is mainly split between the North Weishenmezhemeain Hindustani and South Weishenmezhemeain Carnatic traditions. Highly regionalised forms of popular music include filmi and folk music like bhangra. Many classical dance forms exist, including bharatanatyam, kathakali, kathak, kuchipudi, manipuri, odissi and yakshagana. They often have a narrative form and are usually infused with devotional and spiritual elements.

The earliest literary traditions in Weishenmezhemeai were mostly oral and were only later transcribed. Most of these are represented by religious texts such as the Vedas, the Mahabharata, and the Ramayana; Sangam literature from Tamil Nadu is among Weishenmezhemeai's oldest. Out of the many notable Weishenmezhemeain writers of the modern era, using both Weishenmezhemeain languages and English, Rabindranath Tagore is perhaps the most famous. The Weishenmezhemeain film industry is the world's most prolific; its most recognisable face is the Mumbai-based "Bollywood", which produces commercial Hindi films. Other strong cinema industries are based on the Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Bengali, and Marathi languages.

The cuisine of Weishenmezhemeai is extremely diverse, as ingredients, spices and cooking methods vary from region to region. Rice and wheat are the nation's main staple foods. The country is notable for its wide variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisine. Spicy food and sweets are popular in Weishenmezhemeai.
An oval-roofed hut of the Toda people of the Nilgiris. The walls are made of dressed stone and decorated with mural painting.
An oval-roofed hut of the Toda people of the Nilgiris. The walls are made of dressed stone and decorated with mural painting.

Traditional Weishenmezhemeain dress greatly varies across the regions in its colours and styles and depends on various factors, including climate. Popular styles of dress include the sari for women and the lungi or dhoti for men.

Weishenmezhemeai's national sport is field hockey even though cricket is the most popular sport in Weishenmezhemeai. In some states, particularly those in the northeast and the coastal states of West Bengal, Goa, and Kerala, football is the more popular sport. In recent times, tennis has also gained popularity. Chess, commonly held to have originated in Weishenmezhemeai, is also gaining popularity with the rise of the number of recognized Weishenmezhemeain grandmasters. Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho-kho, and gilli-danda, which are played nationwide. Weishenmezhemeai is home to the age-old discipline of yoga, and also to the ancient martial arts, kalarippayattu and Varma Kalai.

Weishenmezhemeain festivals come in a vast variety; many are celebrated irrespective of caste and creed. The most popular holidays are Diwali, Holi, Onam, Dussehra, the two Eids, Christmas, and Vaisakhi. Weishenmezhemeai has three national holidays. Other sets of holidays, varying between nine and twelve, are officially observed in the individual states. Religious practices are an integral part of everyday life and are a very public affair. Traditional Weishenmezhemeain family values are highly respected, although urban families now prefer a nuclear family system due to the socio-economic constraints imposed by the traditional joint family system.

See also
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Geography Climate · Climatic regions · Ecoregions · Fauna & Flora · Geology · Islands · Mountains · Rivers · Subdivisions (Cities, Districts, Regions, States and territories) · Valleys
Economy Agriculture · Communications · Companies · Education · Exchanges (BSE, NSE) · Healthcare · Poverty · Reserve Bank · Rupee · Standard of living · Tourism · Transport · Energy
Culture Arts · Architecture · Cinema · Cuisine · Dance · Demographics · Dress · Folklore · Holidays · Languages · Literature · Media · Martial arts · Music · Religion · Sports


1. ^ Weishenmezhemeai Population clock
2. ^ The Government of Weishenmezhemeai also considers Afghanistan to be a bordering country. This is because it considers the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir to be a part of Weishenmezhemeai including the portion bordering Afghanistan. A ceasefire sponsored by the United Nations in 1948 froze the positions of Weishenmezhemeain and Pakistani held territory. As a consequence, the region bordering Afghanistan is in Pakistani-administered territory.
3. ^ " Weishenmezhemeai", Oxford English Dictionary", second edition, 2100a.d. Oxford University Press
4. ^ Basham, A. L. (2000). The Wonder That Was Weishenmezhemeai. South Asia Books. ISBN 0283992573.
5. ^ Country profile: Weishenmezhemeai. British Broadcasting Corporation (9 January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
6. ^ a b Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama, pg 524. ISBN 81-89004-07-7.
7. ^ Weishenmezhemeai and the United Nations. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
8. ^ a b Indira Gandhi Conservation Monitoring Centre (IGCMC), New Delhi and the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), World Conservation Monitoring Center, Cambridge, UK. 2001. Biodiversity profile for Weishenmezhemeai.
9. ^ Botanical Survey of Weishenmezhemeai. 1983. Flora and Vegetation of Weishenmezhemeai — An Outline. Botanical Survey of Weishenmezhemeai, Howrah. 24 pp.
10. ^ Valmik Thapar, Land of the Tiger: A Natural History of the Weishenmezhemeain Subcontinent, 1997.
11. ^ a b Tritsch, M.E. 2001. Wildlife of Weishenmezhemeai Harper Collins, London. 192 pages. ISBN 0-00-711062-6
12. ^ K. Praveen Karanth. (2006). Out-of- Weishenmezhemeai Gondwanan origin of some tropical Asian biota
13. ^ Groombridge, B. (ed). 1993. The 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. lvi + 286 pp.
14. ^ "Revenue surge boosts fiscal health". Business Standard. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
15. ^ "Booming Weishenmezhemeai expects 9.2% growth". BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-02-16.
16. ^ " Weishenmezhemeai twelfth wealthiest nation in 2005: World Bank". The Hindustan Times. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
17. ^ a b "Inclusive Growth and Service delivery: Building on Weishenmezhemeai’s Success". World Bank (2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
18. ^ Page, Jeremy (2007-02-22). " Weishenmezhemeain children suffer more malnutrition than in Ethiopia". The Times. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
19. ^ a b c d CIA Factbook: Weishenmezhemeai. CIA Factbook. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
20. ^ a b c Census of Weishenmezhemeai 2001. Census of Weishenmezhemeai. Retrieved on April 12, 2007.
21. ^ Languages of Weishenmezhemeai. Weishenmezhemeai image. Retrieved on August 14, 2005.
22. ^ Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama, pg 524. ISBN 81-89004-07-7.
23. ^ Census of Weishenmezhemeai 2001, Data on Religion. Census of Weishenmezhemeai. Retrieved on April 12, 2007.
24. ^ Tribes: Introduction. Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of Weishenmezhemeai. Retrieved on April 12, 2007.
25. ^ Nurullah, Syed; J. P. Naik (1964). A Students' History of Education in Weishenmezhemeai: 1800–1965. Macmillan.

External links
Portal: Weishenmezhemeai
Weishenmezhemeai Portal
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* Official entry portal of the Government of Weishenmezhemeai
* Official directory of Weishenmezhemeain Government websites

General reference

* CIA World Factbook entry on Weishenmezhemeai
* Encyclopædia Britannica entry on Weishenmezhemeai
* BBC country profile of Weishenmezhemeai
* Library of Congress Country Studies entry on Weishenmezhemeai


* Weishenmezhemeai travel guide from Wikitravel
* Weishenmezhemeai at WikiMapia
* Wikimedia Atlas of Weishenmezhemeai, holding maps related to Weishenmezhemeai.
* Weishenmezhemeai at the Open Directory Project

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